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美文赏析

2015-06-24

1.记住该记住的,忘记该忘记的。改变能改变的,接受不能改变的

Remember what should be remembered, and forget what should be forgotten. Alter what is changeable, and accept what is mutable.

2.能冲刷一切的除了眼泪,就是时间,以时间来推移感情,时间越长,冲突越淡,仿佛不断稀释的茶

Apart from tears, only time could wear everything away. While feeling is being processed by time, conflicts would be reconciled as time goes by, just like a cup of tea that is being continuously diluted.

3.怨言是上天得至人类最大的供物,也是人类祷告中最真诚的部分

Complaints are the greatest offerings that God obtains from human beings, as well as the most faithful prayers human beings might utter to God.

4.智慧的代价是矛盾。这是人生对人生观开的玩笑。

Wisdom appears in contradiction to itself, which is a trick life plays on philosophy of life.

5.世上的姑娘总以为自己是骄傲的公主(除了少数极丑和少数极聪明的姑娘例外)

Girls always look on themselves as proud princesses, with the exception of a small number of either extremely ugly or exceedingly smart ones.

6.如果敌人让你生气,那说明你还没有胜他的把握

It can be inferred that you lack confidence in a victory over your rivals from the fact that you’re irritable against them.

7.如果朋友让你生气,那说明你仍然在意他的友情

From that you would get angry with your friends, we can conclude you sitll care about the friendship between you.

8.令狐冲说“有些事情本身我们无法控制,只好控制自己。”可是,他算什么!!

“ Something is out of our control, so we have to command ourselves.“ said Linghu Chong, a known character in a Chinese novel about persons adept in martial arts(武侠小说?). Who is, however, fucking he?

9.我不知道我现在做的哪些是对的,那些是错的,而当我终于老死的时候我才知道这些。所以我现在所能做的就是尽力做好每一件事,然后等待着老死。

Only till my natural death. could I tell which of what I have been doing is right or wrong, so now I have to try to do well in everything, and then wait to die a natural death.

10.也许有些人很可恶,有些人很卑鄙。而当我设身为他想象的时候,我才知道:他比我还可怜。所以请原谅所有你见过的人,好人或者坏人

Some may be wicked, and some may be despicable. Only when I put myself in their position did I know they are more miserable than I. So forgive all that you have met, no matter what kind of persons they are.

11.鱼对水说你看不到我的眼泪,因为我在水里.水说我能感觉到你的眼泪,因为你在我心里。

“You couldn’t see my tears cause I am in the water.“ Fish said to water.

“But I could feel your tears cause you are in me.“ Answered water.

12.快乐要有悲伤作陪,雨过应该就有天晴。如果雨后还是雨,如果忧伤之后还是忧伤.请让我们从容面对这离别之后的离别。微笑地去寻找一个不可能出现的你!

Happiness is accompanied by sorrow, and it would turn sunny after rain as well. If rain remains after rain and sorrow remains after sorrow, please take those farewells easy, and turn to smilingly look for yourself who is never to appear.

13.死亡教会人一切,如同考试之后公布的结果?虽然恍然大悟,但为时晚矣!

Like the outcome after an exam, death makes us aware of anything, That is, it’s too late to take a tumble.

14.你出生的时候,你哭着,周围的人笑着;你逝去的时候,你笑着,而周围的人在哭!

When you were born, you’re crying but lookers-on were smiling. When you are passing away, you’re smiling but lookers-on are crying.

15.男人在结婚前觉得适合自己的女人很少,结婚后觉得适合自己的女人很多

Man might think that few women fit him before his marriage, and contrarily when they get married.

16.于千万人之中,遇见你所遇见的人;于千万年之中,时间的无涯荒野里,没有早一步,也没有晚一步,刚巧赶上了

Among thousands of people, you meet those you’ve met. Through thousands of years, with the boundlessness of time, you happen to meet them, neither earlier nor a bit too late.

17.每个人都有潜在的能量,只是很容易:被习惯所掩盖,被时间所迷离,被惰性所消磨.

Everyone has his inherent ability( power or capacity?) which is easily concealed by habbits, blured by time, and eroded by laziness( or inertia?).

18.人生短短几十年,不要给自己留下了什么遗憾,想笑就笑,想哭就哭,该爱的时候就去爱,无谓压抑自己

Be sure that you have never had any regrets in your life which only lasts for a few decades. Laugh or cry as you like, and it‘s meaningless to oppress yourself.

19.《和平年代》里的话:当幻想和现实面对时,总是很痛苦的。要么你被痛苦击倒,要么你把痛苦踩在脚下

While our dream is confronted with the reality, you always feel painful. Just trample on the pain, or you‘ll be beat down by it.

20.真正的爱情是不讲究热闹不讲究排场不讲究繁华更不讲究嚎头的

A true love is what doesn‘t strive for busyness, for extravagance, for luxury, and moreover for hokum.

21.生命中,不断地有人离开或进入。于是,看见的,看不见了;记住的,遗忘了。生命中,不断地有得到和失落。于是,看不见的,看见了;遗忘的,记住了。然而,看不见的,是不是就等于不存在?记住的,是不是永远不会消失?

There is someone that is coming or passing away in your life around the clock, so you may lose sight of those seen, and forget those remembered. There is gain and loss in your life, so you may catch sight of those unseen, and remember those forgotten. Nevertheless, doesn‘t the unseen exist for sure? Will the remembered remain for ever?

22.我们确实活得艰难,一要承受种种外部的压力,更要面对自己内心的困惑。在苦苦挣扎中,如果有人向你投以理解的目光,你会感到一种生命的暖意,或许仅有短暂的一瞥,就足以使我感奋不已。

It‘s true that we have been leading a difficult life, for we need not only to be under various external pressures, but also to be in the face of internal perplexities. You would be affected by the warmth of life if someone gives you an understanding look during your bitter struggle. Even a mere glance would make you moved and inspired.

23.我不去想是否能够成功,既然选择了远方,便只顾风雨兼程;我不去想,身后会不会袭来寒风冷雨,既然目标是地平线,留给世界的只能是背影.

I wouldn‘t care success or failure, for I will only struggle ahead as long as I have been destined to the distance. I wouldn‘t care the difficulties around, for what I can leave on the earth is only their view of my back since I have been marching toward the horizontal.

24.后悔是一种耗费精神的情绪.后悔是比损失更大的损失,比错误更大的错误.所以不要后悔

Penitence is something that enervates our spirit, causing a greater loss than loss itself and making a bigger mistake than mistake itself, so never regret.

【转帖】

1.Divine‘s punishments,though slow,are always sure.

天网恢恢,疏而不漏。

2.An act is not a crime unless the law says it is one.

法无明文规定者不为罪。

3.This contract is made of one original and two duplicate originals,all of which are of the same effect.

本合同一式三份,具有同等效力。

4. The law does not concern itself about family trifles.

法律难断家务事。

5.This document is legally binding.

该文件具有法律约束力。

6. This law is in abeyance.

此法暂缓执行。

7. This law has become a dead letter.

此法已成为一纸空文。

8. This law will go into effect on the day of its promulgation.

本法自公布之日起施行。

9 The court dismissed the action.

法院驳回诉讼。

10. The court ordered the case to be retried.

法院命令重审此案……

11.Giving the killer what he deserves.

予杀人者以应得之罪。

12. Hate the sin but not the sinner.

可恨的是罪行而非罪人。

13.Everyone has the right to freedom of expression.

每个人都享有言论自由。

14. Everyone is equal before the law.

法律面前人人平等。

15. First in time,first in right.

先在权利优先。

16. No rights can rest on one person without a corresponding duty resting on some other person or persons.

没有无义务的权利。

17. In most civil contexts it does not matter whether negligence is“gross”or“slight”。

在多数民事事项环境中,过失行为是否“严重”或“轻微”并不关紧要。

18. Traditionally,firm referred to a partnership,as opposed to a company.

按惯例,firm是指合伙企业,与公司相对。

19.A transaction between two parties ought not to operate to the disadvantage of a third.

合约不约束第三人。

20. An acceptance once given cannot be revoked unless the offeror consents.

除非要约人同意,承诺一经做出即不得撤回。

21. A contract may be modified if the parties reach a consensus through consultation.

当事人协商一致即可以变更合同。

22. Any amendments to this contract shall become effective only by a written agreement by Party A and Party B.

对本合同的任何修改,只有经甲、乙双方签署书面协议后方能生效。

23. Any annex is the integral part of this contract.

本合同一切附件均为本合同的有效组成部分。

24. Any departure from the terms and conditions of the contract must be advised in writing.

任何与合同条款相背离的地方,都应以书面形式通知。

25. Any failure by a party to carry out all or part of his obligations under the contract shall be considered as a substantial breach.

一方当事人不履行本合同的全部或任何部分义务均应被视为是根本违约。

26. Any party has no right to terminate this contract without another party‘s agreement.

未经另一方当事人同意,任何当事人均无权终止本合同。

27.Examples of void contracts are those entered as a result of misrepresentation,duress or undue influence.

因欺诈、胁迫和乘人之危而签订的合同属于可撤销合同。

28. If any of the above-mentioned clauses is inconsistent with the following additional clauses,the latter to be taken as authentic.

以上任何条款如与下列附加条款相抵触,以下列附加条款为准。

29. If there are provisions as otherwise stated in respect to contracts in other laws,such provisions shall be followed.

其他法律对合同另有规定的,应依照这些规定。

30.No consideration,no contract.

合同无对价不成立。

31. Other special terms will be listed bellows.

甲、乙双方如有特殊约定将在下列另行约定。

32. Party A and B have reached an agreement through friendly consultation to conclude the following contract.

甲、乙双方,经友好协商一致,订立本合同。

33. Parties hereto may revise or supplement through negotiation matters not mentioned herein.

本合同如有未尽事宜,双方可协商修订或补充。

34. The parties may dissolve the contract upon consensus through consultation.

当事人协商一致,可以解除合同。

35. Counsel must not lead the witness.

律师不得诱导证人。

36. The jury returned a verdict of guilty,and the judge will pass sentence next week.

陪审团裁定有罪,法官将于下周判刑。

37. The jury was unable to reach a unanimous decision.

陪审团未能达成意见一致的裁决。

38.Judgment was entered for the plaintiff.

判决原告胜诉。

39. Now the court is in session.

现在开庭。

40. Order in the court.

法庭内保持肃静。

41. objection -反对objection overruled——反对驳回

Virtue is like a rich stone, best plain set; and surely virtue is best in a body that is comely, though not of delicate features; and that hath rather dignity of presence than beauty of aspect. Neither is it almost seen, that very beautiful persons are otherwise of great virtue; as if nature were rather busy not to err, than in labor to produce excellency. And therefore they prove accomplished, but not of great spirit; and study rather behavior than virtue.

But this holds not always: for Augustus Caesar, Titus Vespasianus, Philip le Bel of France, Edward the Fourth of England, Alicibiades of Athens, Ismael the Sophy of Persia, were all high and great spirits; and yet the most beautiful men of their times. In beauty, that of favor is more than of color; and that of decent and gracious motion more than that of favor. That is the best part of beauty, which a picture cannot express; no nor the first sight of the life. There is no excellent beauty that hath not some strangeness in the proportion. A man cannot tell whether Apelles or Albert Durer were the more trifler; whereof the one would make a personage by geometrical proportions; the other, by taking the best parts out of divers faces, to make one excellent. Such personages, I think, would please nobody but the painter that made them. Not but I think a painter may make a better face than ever was; but he must do it by a kind of felicity (as a musician that maketh as excellent air in music), and not by rule. A man shall see faces, that if you examine them part by part, you shall find never a good; and yet altogether do well. If it be true that the principal part of beauty is in decent motion, certainly it is no marvel though persons in years seem many times more amiable; pulchrorum autumnus pulcher [beautiful persons have a beautiful autumn]; for no youth can be comely but by pardon, and considering the youth as to make up the comeliness.

Beauty is as summer fruits, which are easy to corrupt, and cannot last; and for the most part it makes a dissolute youth, and an age a little out of countenance; but yet certainly again, if it light well, it make the virtue shine, and vices blush.

谈美

王佐良译

德行犹如宝石,朴素最美;其于人也:则有德者但须形体悦目,不必面貌俊秀,与其貌美,不若气度恢宏。人不尽知:绝色无大德也;一如自然劳碌终日,但求无过,而无力制成上品。因此美男子有才而无壮志,重行而不重德。但亦不尽然。罗马大帝奥古斯提与泰特思,法王菲律浦,英王爱德华四世,古雅典之亚西拜提斯,波斯之伊斯迈帝,皆有宏图壮志而又为当时最美之人也。美不在颜色艳丽而在面目端正,又不尽在面目端正而在举止文雅合度。美之极致,非图画所能表,乍见所能识。举凡最美之人,其部位比例,必有异于常人之处。阿贝尔与杜勒皆画家也,其画人像也,一则按照几何学之比例,一则集众脸形之长于一身,二者谁更不智,实难断言,窃以为此等画像除画家本人外,恐无人喜爱也。余不否认画像之美可以超绝尘寰,但此美必为神笔,而非可依规矩得之者,乐师之谱成名曲亦莫不皆然。人面如逐部细察,往往一无是处,观其整体则光彩夺目。美之要素既在于举止,则年长美过年少亦无足怪。古人云:“美者秋日亦美。”年少而著美名,率由宽假,盖鉴其年事之少,而补其形体之不足也。美者犹如夏日蔬果,易腐难存;要之,年少而美者常无行,年长而美者不免面有惭色。虽然,但须托体得人,则德行因美而益彰,恶行见美而愈愧。

论美

曹明伦译

善犹如宝石,以镶嵌自然为美;而善附于美者无疑最美,不过这美者倒不必相貌俊秀,只须气度端庄,仪态宜人。世人难见绝美者兼而至善,仿佛造物主宁愿专心于不出差错,也不肯努力创造出美善兼备之上品。故世间美男子多有身躯之完美而无精神之高贵,多注重其行而不注重其德。但此论并非放之四海而皆准,因古罗马皇帝奥古斯都和韦斯帕萝、法兰西国王腓力四世、英格兰国王爱德华四世、古雅典将军亚西比德、以及伊朗国王伊思迈尔一世皆为志存高远者,但也都是当时的冠王美男。至于美女,天生容貌胜过粉黛胭脂,而优雅举止又胜过天生容貌。优雅之态乃美之极致,非丹青妙笔所能绘之,亦非乍眼一看所能识之。绝色者之形体比例定有异处。世人难断阿佩利斯和丢勒谁更可笑,后者画人像总是按几何比例,前者则将诸多面孔的最美之处汇于一颜。笔者以为除画家本人之外,此等画像谁也不会喜欢。虽说笔者认为画家可以画出比真颜更美的容貌,但他必须得靠神来之笔,而非凭藉什么规则尺度,这就像音乐家谱写妙曲得靠灵感一般。世人可见这样的面庞,若将其五官分而视之则一无是处,但合在一起却堪称花容五颜。倘美之要素果真在于仪态之优雅,那长者比少者更美就不足为奇,须知美人之秋亦美。假如不把春青视为优雅得体之补足,年少者多半都难称俊秀。美貌如夏日鲜果易腐难存,而且它每每使年少者放荡,并给年长者几分难堪;但笔者开篇所言仍然不谬,若美貌依附于善者,便会使善举光彩夺目,使恶行无地自容。

论美

何新译

美德好比宝石,它在朴素背景的衬托下反而更华丽。同样,一个打扮并不华贵却端庄严肃而有美德的人是令人肃然起敬的。美貌的人并不都有其他方面的才能。因为造物是吝啬的,他给了此就不再予彼。所以许多容颜俊秀的人却一无作为,他们过于追求外形美而放弃了内在美。但这话也不全对,因为奥古斯都、菲斯帕斯、腓力普王、爱德华四世、阿尔西巴底斯、伊斯梅尔等,都既是大丈夫,又是美男子。仔细考究起来,形体之美要胜于颜色之美,而优雅行为之美又胜于形体之美。、最高的美是画家所无法表现的,因为它是难于直观的。这是一种奇妙的美。曾经有两位画家——阿皮雷斯和丢勒滑稽地认为,可以按照几何比例,或者通过摄取不同人身上最美的特点,用画合成一张最完美的人像。其实象这样画出来的美人,恐怕只有画家本人喜欢。美是不能制订规范的,创造它的常常是机遇,而不是公式。有许多脸型,就它的部分看并不优美,但作为整体却非常动人。有些老人显得很可爱,因为他们的作风优雅而美。拉丁谚语说过:“晚秋的秋色是最美好的。”而尽管有的年轻人具有美貌,却由于缺乏优美的修养而不配得到赞美。美犹如盛夏的水果,是容易腐烂而难保持的。世上有许多美人,他们有过放荡的青春,却迎受着愧悔的晚年。因此,把美的形貌与美的德行结合起来吧。只有这样,美才会放射出真正的光辉。

转帖】

外贸业务英文书信格式对从事外贸业务人员有很大帮助,本文包括了27种项书信格式,例举了27种书信范文,英文书信格式大汇总。现把英语书信的具体的书信格及书信范文例举如下。

1请求建立商业关系的英文书信

Rogers Chemical Supply Co. 10E.22Street Omaha8,Neb Gentlemen: We have obtained your name and address from Aristo Shoes, Milan , and we are writing to enquire whether you would be willing to establish business relations with us. We have been importers of shoes for many years. At present, We are interested in extending our, range and would appreciate your catalogues and quotations.If your prices are competitive we would expect to transact a significant volume of business. We look forward to your early reply.

Very truly yours自米兰职权里斯托鞋类公司取得贵公司和地址,特此修函,祈能发展关系。多年来,本公司经营鞋类进口生意,现欲扩展业务范围。盼能惠赐商品目录和报价表。如价格公道,本公司必大额订购。烦请早日赐复。此致

2.回复对方建立商业关系的请求的英文书信

Thank your for your letter of the 16th of this month. We shall be glad to enter into business relations with your company. In compliance with your request, we are sending you, under separate cover, our latest catalogue and price list covering our export range. Payment should be made by irrevocable and confirmed letter of credit. Should you wish to place an order, please telex or fax us.本月16日收到有关商务关系的来函,不胜欣喜。谨遵要求另函奉上最新之出口商品目录和报价单。款项烦请以不可撤销保兑之信用状支付。如欲订货,请电传或传真为盼。此致敬礼

3.请求担任独家代理的英文书信

We would like to inform you that we act on a sole agency basis fora number of manufacturers. We specialize in finished cotton goods for the Middle eastern market: Our activities cover all types of household linen. Until now , we have been working with your textiles department and our collaboration has proved to be mutually beneficial. Please refer to them for any information regarding our company. We are very interested in an exclusive arrangement with your factoryfor the promotion of your products in Bahrain. We look forward to your early reply. `本公司担任多家厂家的独家代理,专营精制棉织品,包括各灯家用亚麻制品,行销中东。与贵公司向有业务联系,互利互作。贵公司纺织部亦十分了解有关业务合作之情况。盼望能成为贵公司独家代理,促销在巴林市场的货品。上述建议,烦请早日赐复,以便进一步联系合作。此致敬礼

4.拒绝对方担任独家代理的英文书信

Thank you for your letter of 1 September suggesting that we grant you a sole agency for our household linens. I regret to say that, at this stage ,such an arrangement would berather premature. We would, however, be willing to engage in a trial collaboration with you company to see how the arrangement works. It would be necessary for you to test the market for our productsat you end. You would also have to build up a much larger turnover tojustify a sole agency. We enclose price lists covering all the products you are interested in and look forward to hearing from you soon. 9月1日有关建议担任家用亚麻制品独家代理的来信收悉。谨致衷心谢意。目前时机尚未成熟,不能应允该安排深感抱歉。然而,本公司乐意与贵公司先试行合作,为今后合作打下基础。为证明担任独家代理的能力,贵公司宜上述货品作市场调查,研究是否可扩大现有之营业额。奉上该货品之报价单,敬希查照。专此候复。此致敬礼

5.同意对方担任独家代理的英文书信

Thank you for your letter of 12 April proposing a sole agency for our office machines. We have examined our long and ,I must say ,mutually beneficial collaboration. We would be very pleased to entrust you with the sole agency for Bahrain. From our records, we are pleased to note that you have two service engineers who took training courses at our Milan factory .the sole agency will naturally be contingent on you maintaining qualified aftersales staff. We have drawn up a draft agreement that is enclosed. Please examine the detailed terms and conditions and let us know whether they meet with your approval. On a personal note, I must say that I am delighted that we are probably going to strengthen our relationship. I have very pleasant memories of my last visit to Bahrain when you entertained me so delightfully .I look forward to reciprocating on your next visit to Milan . My very best wishes to you and your wife. 4月12日建议担任为公室器具之独家代理来信已经收悉。过去双方合作皆互利互助,能获您的眷顾作我公司于巴林的独家代理,殊感荣幸。据知您公司两服务技师曾到我公司米兰工厂受训。相信您公司在取得代理权后,仍会继续注重合格售后服务人员的训练。现随信附上协议草稿,请查实各项条款,惠复是盼。能加强业务,我亦感到欣喜,前次到访巴林,蒙盛情款待,不胜感激。祈盼您莅临米兰时,容我一尽地主之谊。此致敬礼

6.借引荐建立业务关系的英文书信

At the beginning of this month , I attended the Harrogate toy fair. While there , I had an interesting conversation with Mr. Douglas Gage of Edutoys plc about selecting an agency for our teaching aids. Douglas described your dynamic sales force and innovative approach to marketing. He attributed his own company's success to your excellent distribution network which has served him for several years. We need an organization like yours to launch our products in the UK. Our teaching aids cover the whole field of primary education in all subjects .Our patented ‘Matrix’ math apparatus is particularly successful. You may have reservations about American teaching aids suiting your market. This is not a problem since we have a complete range of British English versions. I enclose an illustrated catalogue of our British English editions for your information. Please let me have your reactions to the material. I shall be in London during the first two weeks of October .Perhaps we could arrange a meeting to discuss our proposal.本用初参观哈洛加特玩具交易会时有幸与教育玩具股份有限公司的道格拉斯•盖齐先生一谈,提及本公司正物色代理人推广教学器材一事。盖齐先生赞扬贵公司积极推广产品,不断推出新的推销方法,并把其公司的成就归于贵公司完善的经销网络。贵公司的经验,正能替本公司在英国经销产品。本公司生产初级教育各学科的教育器村、专利产品梅特里克教学器材更傲视同侪。除美国教学器材外,亦备有全套英式英语版教材,适合当地市场,贵公司无需忧虑切合市场需求。现附上配有插图的英式英语版教材目录,盼抽空细阅,并赐知宝贵意见。本人拟于10月头两星期前往伦敦,未知能否安排会面,就以上建议作一详谈?此致敬礼

7.邀请参观贸易展览会的英文书信

Many thanks for your letter and enclosures of 12 September. We were very interested to hear that you are looking for an UK distributor for your teaching aids. We would like to invite you to visit our booth,no.6,at next month's London Toy Fair, at Earl's court , which starts on 2 October. If you would like to set up an appointment during non exhibit hall hours please call me. I can then arrange for our sensor staff to be present at the meeting. We look forward to hearing from you.多谢9月12日的来信和附件。获悉贵公司有意物色英国销售商推广教学辅助设备,甚感兴趣。本公司将于10月2日于厄尔大楼举行的耸敦玩具商品交易会上展示产品,诚邀贵公司派员参观设于46号之摊位。如能安排于非展出时间面谈,烦请电复。定必委派高层人员赴会。本公司深知贵公司产品精美质优,希望能发展互惠之业务。特此奉告,并候复音。

8.与过去有贸易往来的公司联系的英文书信

We understand from our trade contacts that your company has reestablished itself in Beirut and is once again trading successfully in your region. We would like to extend our congratulations and offer our very best wishes for your continued success. Before the war in Lebanon , our companies were involved in a large volume of trade in our textiles. We see from our records that you were among our best tem customers. We very much hope that we can resume our mutually beneficial relationship now that peace has returned to Lebanon. Since we last traded, our lines have changed beyond recognition. While they reflect current European taste in fabrics, some of our designs are specifically targeted at the Middle Eastern market. As an initial step , I enclose our illustrated catalogue for your perusal. Should you wish to receive samples for closer inspection, we will be very happy to forward them. We look forward to hearing from you.从同行中获悉贵公司贝鲁特复业,生意发展迅速。得闻喜讯,不胜欢欣。谨祝业务蒸蒸日上。黎巴嫩战事发生前双方曾有多宗纺织品交易;贵公司更是本公司十大客户之一。现今战事平息,亟盼能重展双方互惠的业务联系。自上次合作至令,产品款式变化极大。除了有迎合欧洲人口味的款式这外,亦有专门为中东市场而设计的产品。现奉上配有插图的商品目录供初步参考。职需查看样本,还望赐知。

9.确认约会的英文书信

I would like to confirm our appointment to discuss the possibility of merging our distribution networks. I am excited of the prospect ofexpanding our trade. As agreed, We will meet of our office in bond street at 9.30a.m.on Monday 20 March. I have scheduled the whole day for the meeting. If for any reason you are unable to attend , please phone me so that we can make alternative arrangements. Please let me know if you would like our office to arrange hotel accommodation. I look forward with great pleasure to our meeting.承蒙拔冗讲讨论合并双方销售网,以扩大贸易发展范围,深感兴奋。现特修函确定会议日程。谨于3月20日星期一在邦德街办公室候教,请贵公司代表于当日早上9时莅临指导。若因故未能抽空出席,烦请致电告知,以便另行安排会晤。未知是否需代为安排旅馆膳宿?请尽早赐知,以便早作准备,款待贵客。谨此预祝会谈成功。

10.感谢客户订货的英文书信

Gillette-burns Co. 322 Gleenwood street Gleveland 5,Ohio Glentlemen: Thank you for your order no,464 of 20 september. The models you selected from our showroom went out today under my personal supervision.The package is being airfreghted to you on swissair.The relevant documentation is enclosce.I enjoyed meeting yiu and hope that this order represents the beginning of a long and prosperous relationship between oiur companies. The next time you visit us ,please let me know in advance so that I can arrange a luch for you with our derectors. Sincerely yours谢谢9月20日第464号定单。今天我已新自监督发送您自展览室挑选的产品。该产品随附有关文件经瑞士航空公司运送。很荣幸与你会面,衷心希望是次定单能加强双方的关系。下次到访前,烦请赐知,俾能安排与本公司董事共进午餐。

11.向长期客户推销新产品的英文书信

I enclose an illustrated supplement toour catalogue. It covers the latest designs which are now available from stock. We are most gratified that you have, for several yeas. Include a selection of our products in your mail-order catalogues. The resulting sales have been very steady. We believe that you will find our new designs most attractive. Theyshould get a very good reception in your market. Once you have had time to study the upplement , please let us know if you would like to take the matter further. We would be very happy to send samples to you for closer inspection. For your information, we are planning a range of classical English dinner services which ,should do well in the North American market. We will keep you informed on our progress and look forward to hearingfrom you.随函寄奉配有插图的商品目录附页,介绍最新设计的产品。贵公司的邮购目录多年来收录本公司产品,产品销售成绩理想,特此致以深切谢意。最新设计的产品巧夺天工,定能吸引顾客选购。烦请参阅上述附页,需查看样本,请赐复,本公司乐意交劳。本公司现正设计一系列款式古典的英国餐具,适合北美市场需求。如感兴趣,亦请赐知。愿进一步加强联系,并候复音。

12.为商贸指南兜揽广告的英文书信

Thank you for your business. You arecurrently represented in our directory. This is the only directory of its kind which reaches all companies in the building and construction industry in the UK. Advertising in our directory was a wise move on your part. We are currently compiling a new edition of the directory which willbe published in April 1995.The new edition will be expanded to include major manufacturers of plumbing equipment in the European Community. For proper coverage in the directory, you ought to appear in more than one category. If you do opt for a multiple listing, you will be ableto buy space in additional categories at half price. You can be assured that the new edition will be on the desks of allthe major decision makers in the building and hardware trades. Please complete the enclosed form and return it with the appropriate fee. Thanks again for your business.衷心感谢惠顾。贵公司商号已刊登在本公司的商贸指南中。该指南乃唯一覆盖英国全部建筑公司的刊物,在此刊登广告确是明智之举。现下筹备1998年4月版的贸易批南,新版会罗列欧洲贡同体的主要铅管业制造商。为达到出色的宣传效果,贵公司宜考虑在不同类别刊登广告。如蒙惠顾,除首个广告外,其余类别的广告将可获半价优惠。该指南将分送给所有建筑公司和五金器具公司主管。烦表填妥随附表格,连同广告费用一并寄回。专此盼候佳音。

13.请求客户作推荐人的英文书信

Thank you for your letter of 2 November. We are delighted to hear that you are to pleased with the refurbishment of your hotel. As your know .in our line of work, we depend on good ,reports about our projects to win further business. Our clients always shop around and look for references before committing themselves. With your permission, we would like to use your hotel as a reference when we discuss similar refurbishments in the hotel industry . Would you agree to our suggesting that future clients should call you? It would also be most helpful if we could occasionally bring a client to look at your hotel . We would , of course , stay overnight at least.I'll call you next week to hear your reaction. Thanks again for you kind words.从11月2日的来函得悉阁下对贵饭店的整修感到满意,此消息对本公司实是一鼓励。设计行业重视声誉,客人在选择设计公司时必然会有所比较。如蒙允许,本公司欲请贵饭店作推荐人,证明有关整修的质素。未知可否让其他客户来电垂询?此外,如获允准间或联同客户前来参观贵饭店整修,定必有莫大帮助。当然,本公司会预订房间,至少留宿一晚。

14.通知客户价格调整的英文书信

We enclose our new catalogue and price list. The revised prices will apply from 1 April 1997. You will see that there have been number of changes in our product range. A number of improved models have been introduced. Out range of washing machines has been completely revamped. Many popular lines, however, have been retained unchanged. You will be aware that inflation is affecting industry as a whole .Ws have been affected like everyone else and some price increases havebeen unavoidable. We have not, however, increased our prices across the board, In many cases, there is a small price increase, but in others, none at all. We can assure you that the quality of our consumer durables has been maintained at a high standard and that our service will continueto be first class. We look forward to receiving your orders.谨谢上新的商品目录和价格表。修订价格定于1997年4月1日起生效。产品系列有一大革新,增加了不少改良的型号,扒出一系列新款的洗衣机,但许多款的开动号仍保持不变。通货膨胀影响整个工业连带令货品价格上涨。虽然如此,本公司并未全面提升价格,调整幅度亦不大。本公司坚守一贯信念,务求出产优质之耐用消费品,迎合顾客的需要。谢谢贵公司多年惠顾,盼继续合作。

15.说明价格调整原因的英文书信

I enclose our new price list , which will come into effect ,from the end of this month. You will see that we have increased our prices on most models. We have ,however , refrained from doing so on some models of which we hold large stocks. We feel we should explain why we have increased our prices. We are paying 10% more for our raw materials than we were paying last year. Some of our subcontractors have raised their by as much as 15%. As you know , we take great pride in our machines and are jealous of the reputation for quality and dependability which we have achieved over the last 40 years. We will not compromise that reputation because of rising costs. We hope, therefore decided to raise the price of some of our machines. We hope you will understand our position and look forward to your orders.现谨附上本公司新价格表,新价格将于本月底生效。除了存货充裕的商品外,其余大部分货品均已调升价格。是次调整原因是原材料价格升幅上涨10%□,一些承包商的价格调升到15%。过去40年,本公司生产的机器品质优良、性能可靠。今为确保产品质量,唯有稍为调整价格。上述情况,还望考虑。愿能与贵公司保持紧密合作。

16.回复感谢信的英文书信

We greatly appreciate your letter describing the assistance you received in solving your air-conditioning problems. We are now in our fifty year of operation, and we receive many letters like your indicating a high level of customer satisfaction with our installation. We are pleased that our technical staff assisted you so capably. We would like you to know that it you need to contact us at any time in the future. Our engineers will be equally responsive to your request for assistance. If we can be of service to you again, please let us know. Thank you again for your very kind letter.承蒙来信赞扬本公司提供的空调维修工程服务,欣喜不已。五年前开业至今,屡获客户来函嘉奖,本公司荣幸之至。欣悉贵公司识技术人员的服务,他日苛有任何需要,亦请与本公司联络,本公司定当提供优秀技师,竭诚效劳。在此谨再衷心感谢贵公司的赞赏,并请继续保持联络。

17.请客户征询其它公司的英文书信

Thank you for your enquiry of 5 May concerning silk blouses. We regret to say that we do not manufacture clothing to your own designs to the highest European standards: Swan Textiles corporation The industrial zone Shekou We supply the factor with all their silk materials, I enclose a swatch of our stock materials for your examination. Should you desire any of these samples made up into finished products , we can supply the swan factory with them. We hope that this will be of help to you and wish you every success in your business dealings.谢谢5月5月日来函查询关于纡绸罩衫的事宜。本公司只生产纡绸布料,供应纺织品批发商和制造厂家,并没有制造成衣,因而未能接受贵公司订货,谨致万分歉意然而,本公司乐意推荐本地一家生产优质男装的工厂,相信可按贵公司设计的款式制造符合欧洲最高标准的服装:蛇口工业区天鹅纺织品公司。该厂的丝绸布料全由本公司供应,随函了什样本以供查阅,如贵公司认为适合,本公司乐意负责供应所需布料。愿上资料对贵公司有所帮助。谨祝生意兴隆,事事顺达。

18.改善服务的英文书信

Thank you for your letter of 26 January. I apologize for the delivery problems you had with us last month. I have had a meeting with our production and shipping managers to work out a better system for handling your account .We know we made a mistake on your last order . Although we replaced it for you. we want to make sure it does not happen again. We have devised the enclosed checklist to use for each of your future order. It includes your firm's particular specifications, packing requirements and marking instructions. I believe can service your company better and help you operations run more smoothly with this safeguard. Please contact us if there are any additional points you would like us to include.感谢1月26日来信。对上月贵公司更换所需货品,唯恐类似事件再发生,本公司生产、运输和出口部经理已商议制订更有效方法处理贵公司事务,并为此特别设计清单。随信奉上该清单,供贵公司今后订货之用。当中包括特殊规格、包装要求和樗说明等栏目,相信此举有助本公司提供更佳服务,促进双方合作。如欲增设任何栏目于该清单上,恳求惠示。

19.拒绝客户的要求的英文书信

Thank you for your enquity of 25 August.We are always pleased to hear from a valued customer.I regret to say that we cannot agree to your request for technical information regarding our software security sysytems.The fact is,that most of our competitors also keep such information private and confidential.I sincerely hope that this does not inconvenience you in any way.If there is any other way in which we can help. do not hesitte to contact us again. 8月25日信收悉,谨此致谢。来信要求本公司提供有关软件保密系统的技术资料,但鉴于同行向来视该等资料为机密文件,本公司亦不便透露,尚祈见谅。我真诚地希望这样不会对贵公司造成不便。如需本公司协助其他事宜,欢迎随时赐顾垂询。祝业务蒸蒸日上!

20.应付难办的客户的英文书信

We have been doing business together for a long time and we value our relationship of late, we have not been able to provide the kind of service we both want. The problem is that your purchasing department is changing orders after they have been placed. This has led to confusion and frustration for both of our companies. In several instances. you have returned goods that were originally ordered. To solve the problem , I propose that on receipt of an order, our sales staff contact you to verify it. If you decide on any changes, we will amend the order and fax you a copy so that you can check it. I trust this system will cut down on delays and errors, and allow our operations to run smoothly.承蒙多年惠顾,本公司感激万分。然近来合作出现问题,令服务水准未能符合对方要求,本公司为此担忧不已。贵公司采部发出定单后,再三更改内容;更有甚者,屡次退回订购之货品,导致了双方公司工作中的混乱和困惑。为避免问题日趋严重,特此在接到定单后,由本公司销售人员与贵公司复核。若需作出改支,本公司把定单修改后电传副本,供贵公司查核。盼望上述办法经受减少延误,促进双方业务发展。

21.祝贺新公司成立的英文书信

It has just come to our attention that you have lately opened your new European headquarters in Brussels. Congratulations on your bold venture. As you know , our companies have had a long business association in the UK. We look forward to collaborating with you in your European venture. Please let us know if we can be of any assistance to you. We will be delighted to help. We wish you the very best of luck and a prosperous future.

22.非正式的预约要求的英文书信

Could we meet some time this month to discuss the hypermarket proposal? We want to make decision by the beginning of next month. We would very much like to hear your thoughts before we make any definite plans. Could you choose a venue for the meeting? I can fly to London any time, Perhaps you would prefer Lyon or Paris? I leave it to you to choose. I look forward to seeing you again.您好!未知能否于本月会面,商谈有关特大自助市场的建议呢?我们准备于下月初作出最后决定。在未订下明确计划之前,希望能咨询的意见。敢问能否选定会面地点?在伦敦、巴黎或里昂商谈都可以,悉随尊便。期待与您见面。

23.物色代理商的英文书信

Our company manufactures a range of printing presses that are used successfully by companies in over 20 countries. A product specification brochure is enclosed. We are considering expanding our products to new markets and we would appreciate you assistance. In particular , we would like to identify the best agents who are currently serving the printing industryin your region. We are looking for organizations which conduct their business in a truly professional manner. They must be fully conversant with thetechnical side of the printing industry and have a comprehensive understanding of all the features of the lines t6hey represent. We would be very grateful if you could take a few moments to send us the names of three or four organizations that match our requirements.We shall then contact them to explore the possibility of establishing a mutually acceptable business relationship. Thank you very much for your time and consideration in this matter.本公司生产的一系列印刷机,获二十多个国家的公司采用。随函附上产品规格说明书,谨供参考。现为该产品开拓新市场,希望得知贵地区从事印刷工业的代理商资料。如蒙贵公司协助,将不胜感激。如能拨冗寄来数个符合上述要求代理商商号,则感激不尽。本公司将与其联系,研究能否建立互惠互利折业务关系。右蒙惠告,不胜感荷!

24.欢迎新代理商的英文书信

I would like to welcome you to our organization. We are very pleased to have you on our ream. I know that you will be equally proud of our products. Our European sales Representative, Antoine Gerin , will be in touch with you at regular intervals. Please feel to call him any time you have a problem, If I can regular intervals. Please feel free to call him any time you have a problem. If I can ever be of service, please call me. I am planning a trip to France next month, and I am looking forward to meeting you. In the meantime, the best of luck with our product line.欢迎加入本公司成为我们的一分子。相信您也会以本公司的产品为荣。欧洲销售代理安东尼•格林会定期与联络,遇有问题可与他商讨。若有其他需要,欢迎向我提出。下月我将赴法国一游,期望能与您会面。谨祝产品销量节节上升。

25.要求约见的英文书信

Would you be interested in stocking a radical new departure in laptop computers? I would very much like to brief you on this great innovation. Could we make an appointment? The machine is the same size as most laptops but comes with some totally new features. The retail price will undercut its nearest competitor by at least 20%.I shall be in the UK from 1 September to 20 October. If you would like to know more, just fax or telex me.贵公司有没有考虑配置最新型号的手提电脑?本公司诚意推介该崭新产品,盼能预约时间作一介绍。该电脑体积和同类电脑相仿,但配备多项先进功能。其零售价较同类产品便宜20%以上。本人将于9月1日至10月20日逗留英国。如蒙拨冗了解该产品资料,烦请函复。

26.拒绝约见的英文书信

Thank you for your letter of 7 July regarding your new laptop computer. I regret to say that we cannot agree to your request for an appointment. We currently have the sole agency for another computer company, Under the terms of the contract , We are barred from stocking any other company's products. The sole agency comes under review in six months' time . Contact us then and we may be able to consider your new product. 7月7日有关新型号手提电脑函收悉。本公司暂未能安排会面,深感歉意。现时正为另一家电脑公司提任独家代理,根据合约条款,不得销售别家电脑公司的产品。该代理权将于六个月后期满。届时烦请再作联系,共商贵产品代理事宜。

27.同意约见的英文书信

Thank you for your letter of 15 September. I note that you will bein the UK during the whole of November. We are quite interested by the fashion knitwear illustrated in yourcatalogue. As a fashion Chain. We might consider having some of our own designs manufactured in China. Please let me know when you would like to call on us. The week beginning 6 November would suit me best. I look forward to meeting you and discussing this matter.感谢9月15日的来信。欣闻阁下将于11月逗留伦敦一个月,望到时能拨冗相会。本公司对贵公司商品目录中的针织时装深感兴趣。现正研究设计款式,在中国制造后寄本公司时装连锁店发售。如能于11月6日或其后数天抽空来访,当感激不尽。期待与您会面,商讨有关事宜。

再别康桥

轻轻的我走了,

正如我轻轻的来;

我轻轻的招手,

作别西天的云彩。

Very quietly I take my leave

As quietly as I came here;

Quietly I wave good-bye

To the rosy clouds in the western sky.

那河畔的金柳

是夕阳中的新娘

波光里的艳影,

在我的心头荡漾。

The golden willows by the riverside

Are young brides in the setting sun;

Their reflections on the shimmering waves

Always linger in the depth of my heart.

软泥上的青荇,

油油的在水底招摇;

在康河的柔波里,

我甘心做一条水草

The floatingheart growing in the sludge

Sways leisurely under the water;

In the gentle waves of Cambridge

I would be a water plant!

那榆荫下的一潭,

不是清泉,是天上虹

揉碎在浮藻间,

沉淀着彩虹似的梦。

That pool under the shade of elm trees

Holds not water but the rainbow from the sky;

Shattered to pieces among the duckweeds

Is the sediment of a rainbow-like dream?

寻梦?撑一支长篙,

向青草更青处漫溯,

满载一船星辉,

在星辉斑斓里放歌

To seek a dream? Just to pole a boat upstream

To where the green grass is more verdant;

Or to have the boat fully loaded with starlight

And sing aloud in the splendour of starlight.

但我不能放歌,

悄悄是别离的笙箫;

夏虫也为我沉默,

沉默是今晚的康桥!

But I cannot sing aloud

Quietness is my farewell music;

Even summer insects heep silence for me

Silent is Cambridge tonight!

悄悄的我走了,

正如我悄悄的来;

我挥一挥衣袖,

不带走一片云彩。

Very quietly I take my leave

As quietly as I came here;

Gently I flick my sleeves

Not even a wisp of cloud will I bring away

Money is not everything. There's Mastercard & Visa.

钞票不是万能的,有时还需要信用卡.

One should love animals. They are so tasty.

每个人都应该热爱动物,因为它们很好吃.

Love the neighbor. But don't get caught.

要用心去爱你的邻居,不过不要让她的老公知道.

Behind every successful man, there is a woman. And behind every unsuccessful man, there are two.

每个成功男人的背后都有一个女人,每个不成功男人的背后都有两个女人。

Every man should marry. After all, happiness is not the only thing in life.

再快乐的单身汉迟早也会结婚,幸福不是永久的嘛.

The wise never marry, and when they marry they become otherwise.

聪明人都是未婚的,结婚的人很难再聪明起来.

Success is a relative term. It brings so many relatives.

成功是一个相关名词,他会给你带来很多不相关的亲戚(联系).

Never put off the work till tomorrow what you can put off today.

不要等明天交不上差再找借口,今天就要找好.

Love is photogenic. It needs darkness to develop.

爱情就像照片,需要大量的暗房时间来培养.

乡愁

余光中

小时候,乡愁是一枚小小的邮票,我在这头,母亲在那头。

长大后,乡愁是一张窄窄的船票,我在这头,新娘在那头。

后来啊!乡愁是一方矮矮的坟墓,我在外头,母亲在里头。

而现在,乡愁是一湾浅浅的海峡,我在这头,大陆在那头。

Homesickness

 

When I was a child, my homesickness was a small stamp

Linking Mum at the other end and me this.

When grown up, I remained homesick, but it became a ticket

By which I sailed to and from my bride at the other end.

Then homesickness took the shape of a grave,

Mum inside of it and me outside.

Now I'm still homesick, but it is a narrow strait

Separating me on this side and the mainland on the other.

汉语连动式和兼语式的英译法

汉语中两个或两个以上的动词连用,构成复合谓语。复合谓语有两种类型:连动式和兼语式。

一、连动式的译法

汉语连动式的特点:两个或两个以上的动词,与同一主语发生主谓关系。连动式的这两个或两个以上的动词所表示的动作、行为,在顺序上不能变动。

(一)表示先后关系的连动式通常将几个动词都译成谓语动词,按原文中的先后顺序,用and加以连接。例如:

1.他把书接过来摆在膝盖上。

He took the book and laid it on his lap.

2.这个军官放下杯子站了起来。

The officer put down his glass and stood up.

表示动作先后的连动式,第一个动词也可以用分词结构来译。

3.他打开抽屉拿出词典来。

Opening the drawer he took out the dictionary.

4.她备好了课开始写日记。

Having prepared her lessons, she began to write up her diary.

(二)表示手段、目的关系的连动式,在英译时,通常是把前一个动词,即表示手段的词译作谓语,而后一个动词即表示目的的词,则用不定式译作谓语。

1、那老汉下意识地举起手来搔他那光秃秃的头顶。

The old man involuntarily raised his hand to scratch his bald head.

2.去年我和弟弟回乡去看朋友。

Last year I went home with my brother to visit our friends.

表示手段、目的关系的连动式中,第二个动词有时也可以用含目的意义的介词来译。

1.他回房间去取钥匙。

He went back to his room for the key.

2.这年头,谁敢下乡去收租?

Who dares to go down into the villages for rent these days?

(三)有些连动式,前一个动作表示后一个动作的方式、状态,两者形成主从关系。在英译时,通常把后一个动作用限定动词译成谓语,前一个动作译成分词或介词短语。

1.他们热烈鼓掌欢迎美国来宾。

They welcomed the American guests with warm applause.

2.不久,他捧着那本书回来了。

Very soon he came back, holding that book in his hand.

3.她已经洗完了衣服,坐在小溪边的石头上撩起布衫揩脸上的汗水。

She had already finished washing. Seated on a stone beside the stream, she wiped her perspiring face with her tunic.

二、兼语式的译法兼语式的特点:谓语有两个动词,前一动词的宾语,又是后一动词的主语,前后两个动词不共用一个主语。兼语式的基本译法有以下几种:

(一)按英语的SVOC (主语+谓语+宾语+补语)句型把兼语式的第二个动词转化为英语的宾语补足语.

A.很多情况下,其宾补是由不定式充当.

1.谦虚使人进步,骄傲使人落后.

Modesty helps one to go forward, whereas conceit makes one lag behind.

2.我们都劝他戒烟.

We all advised him to give up smoking.

B.有时英语的宾语补足语可用介词短语来充当.

3.他迫使对方处于守势.

He drove his opponent into a defensive position.

4.地震使所有的房子都成了废墟.

The earthquake reduced all the houses to ruins.

C.宾语补足语有时还可用形容词,副词,名词或分词来翻译.

5、我们必须使房子保持整洁.

We must keep the room clean and tidy.

6、你妈妈叫你马上回去,

Your mother wants you back home at once.

7、我们选他为区人民代表.

We elected him a deputy to the district people’s congress.

兼语式的第一个动词如果是表示生理上感觉的动词时,也常常按SVOC句型来翻译.

8、他觉得房子在摇动.

He felt the house shaking.

9、我们可以听见孩子们在外面玩.

We could hear the children at play outside.

(二)英语中有大量含有“致使” “促成”意义的动词,有时为了句子简单有力,往往用这类动词来翻译.例如:

1、这真叫我吃惊.

It surprised me!

2、这暴行使全世界公众舆论感到震惊.

This outrage shocked the world opinion.

(三)有些兼语式结构出现在主语中充当句子的一个成分,这种兼语结构可译成一个以具有动词意义的名词为中心词的短语.

1、党中央动员和组织边区各方力量进行抗日赢得全国人民的高度赞扬.

The Party Central Committee’s mobilization and organization of the Border Region’s capacities to make war against the Japanese won high praise from the people throughout the country.

(四)兼语式的第一个动词如果是“责怪”, “埋怨”, “批评”, “表扬”等,往往可将第二个动词译作英语的状语短语或状语从句.

1、报上批评这位作家没有真实地反映生活.

Newspapers criticized the author because he failed to present a true picture of life in his works.

2、她责备孩子迟迟不回家.

She reproached her child for staying out late.

(五)有时也可按上下文和英语习惯灵活翻译.

1、…要使十四亿人的中国人民生活得好…

… to ensure a better life for the 1.4 billion people in China…

2、小姐,我劝您少管闲事.

Young lady, You’d better mind your own business.

3、您叫我去哪?

But where can I go?

汉英长句翻译

汉语是以分析形式为主的语言,句子结构比较松散。有时一个句子里存在不少并列成分,但并没有连接词把其中的逻辑关系明显地表现出来。英语是以综合形式为主的语言,句子结构比较严谨,各个句子成分之间的逻辑关系需要明确彰显。两种语言在语法结构上的差异加大了长句翻译的难度。

(1)原序对译

即顺译法。这种方法多用于单一主语的长句,但要分清句中的信息重心。汉语的信息重心在许多情况下不体现在形式上,而体现在内在逻辑关系上。而英语句子很注重信息的主次之分,主要信息放在突出位置,次要信息作为辅助性的描写或叙述手段。所以汉译英时,应该把汉语隐性主次关系发掘出来,译成英语的主次表达方式。通常,汉语中表示“结果、行为动作、推论结论、本质、目的”的部分会译成英语的主句或谓语部分;汉语中表示“时间、地点、原因、条件、方式、方法、手段、状态、说明、解释、非本质、修饰、否定”的部分,在英语中则以从句或非谓语动词的形式体现。

例1:

原文:当他活着一天,总要尽量多工作、多学习,不肯虚度年华,不让时间白白地浪费掉。(2005年真题)

译文:As long as they are living, they always work and study as hard as possible, unwilling to dream their life away, let alone waste even a single moment of their lives.

例2:

原文:…一旦隔离,拘禁在花园山坡上一幢小房子里,顿感被打入冷宫,十分郁郁不得志起来。(2003年真题)

译文:Once I was deposed into a cold palace on the hillside of the garden, I suddenly felt I was neglected and became very depressed.

例3:

原文:我在山坡的小屋里,悄悄掀起窗帘,窥见园中大千世界,一片喧闹。(2003年真题)

译文:Without being noticed, I lifted the curtain in my small room, only to spy the bustle of a kaleidoscopic world down in the garden.

例4:

原文:其中有一半是近5年才来到温哥华地区的,这使温哥华成为亚洲以外最大的中国人聚居地。(1999年真题)

译文:Half of them have come to Vancouver area the past five years only, making it the largest Chinese settlement outside Asia.

分析:原文中“这使…聚居地”是华人移民的结果,故而译为现在分词短语。

例5:

原文:我的导师是个亚裔人,嗜烟好酒,脾气暴躁…(1997年真题)

译文:My superior, an Asian American with a hot temper, was addicted to smoking and drinking.

分析:原文的信息重心为“嗜烟…暴躁”,确定为主干,从而将“是个亚裔人”译为同位语。

例6:

原文:中国民族自古以来从不把人看作高于一切,在哲学文艺方面的表现都反映出人在自然界中与万物占着一个比例较为恰当的地位,而非绝对统治万物的主宰。(2006年真题)

译文:Chinese people has never regarded human being as the highest creature among everything else since ancient times, whose behavior in both philosophy and arts takes a rather appropriate proportion with all others in the natural world, but not as an absolute dominant ruler.

分析:这句话结构比较复杂,第一句为主句,后面的小句是对第一句话的补充说明,省略了主语“中国民族”,可以用whose引导的定语从句来处理,简化句子结构。

(2)分句合译

一般来说,汉语句子要比英语句子简短,汉语中较高层次的单位经常被译为英语中层次较低一级的单位。

例1:

原文:钓鱼是一项能够陶冶性情的运动,有益于身心健康。(2001年真题)

译文1:Fishing is an outdoor sport that can help cultivate your mind and it is good for mental and physical health.

译文2:Fishing is an edifying activity, conductive to both the body and the mind.

例2:

原文:一个人的生命究竟有多大意义,这有什么标准可以衡量吗?(2005年真题)

译文:Could there be any standards to evaluate the meaning of ones life?

分析:“衡量”的宾语是前一个分句,即“生命的意义”,因此两个分句整合译为一句。

例3:

原文:求学是一件艰苦的事情,许多人不能忍受那必经的艰苦,所以不能成功。

译文:To learn, actually, is to experience the indispensable pain and those who cannot get it over with can not become learned.

分析:原文中“求学…事情”与“许多人…成功”在语义和逻辑上较为紧凑,可将该句译为一个并列句。

(3)断句分译

汉语多流水句,一个长句中可能有多个主语,英语中一句话只能有一个主语,因此应当把长句拆开来翻译。

例1:

原文:一个春天的傍晚,园中百花怒放,父母在园中设宴,霎时宾客云集,笑语四溢。(2003年真题)

译文:One spring evening, my parents held a banquet in the garden where all sorts of flowers were in full bloom. Instantly, a crowd of guests gathered together and their laughter was heard all over there.

例2:

原文:这次到台湾访问交流,虽然行程匆匆,但是,看了不少地方,访了旧友,交了新知,大家走到一起,谈论的一个重要话题就是中华民族在21世纪的强盛。(1998年真题)

译文:The current visit to Taiwan for exchange,brief and cursory as it is,has enabled us to see many places,to visit old friends while making new acquaintances.An important topic for discussing at our gatherings was the prosperity of Chinese nation in the 21st century.

(4)主、次信息句

在汉语中,有时两个或两个以上的不同主语的句子在表面上是并列的,没有主从或偏正关系,但实际上有内在的逻辑关联和主次之分,因此不宜断句分译,而应把主要信息译为完整的句子,把次要信息以独立结构的形式体现。

例1:

原文:在世纪之交的伟大时代,我们的祖国正在走向繁荣富强,海峡两岸人民也将加强交流,共同推进祖国统一大业的早日完成。(1998年真题)

译文1:At the turn of the century, our motherland is becoming more prosperous and powerful. People across the Straits will strengthen their exchanges, and work together to realize the cause of the reunification of their motherland.

译文2:At the turn of the century, as our motherland is becoming more prosperous and powerful, people across the Straits will strengthen their exchanges, and work together to realize the cause of the reunification of their motherland.

译文3:At the turn of the century, our motherland becoming more prosperous and powerful, people across the Straits will strengthen their exchanges, and work together to realize the cause of the reunification of their motherland.

分析:这个句子有三种处理方式。可以根据分句的不同主语,断句分译,译为两个独立的句子;也可以根据信息重心的主次,将次要信息“我们的祖国正在走向繁荣富强”译为时间状语从句或者独立结构。

例2:

原文:很难说他什么时候回家,我得上床睡觉了。

译文:There being no telling when hell be home, Ill have to go to bed now.

例3:

原文:这位民族英雄没有死,他的故事照亮了千百万人的心。

译文:This national hero lives on, his story lighting up the hearts of millions of people.

如何培养英语思维方式

一、英语思维方式的培养应该从模仿开始。

“学习语言的主要手段是模仿,这种模仿是从听觉定向活动开始的,经过大脑分析器的作用,然后由心理活动器官的操练而完成的。”心理语言学家认为,语言是从听开始的,当一个婴儿生下来就学说话时,完全是靠听,模仿(imitate)母亲的声音。如果一个婴儿生下来就是一个聋子,他就听不到声音,也谈不上什么成功的模仿者。一个不足10岁的儿童,如果他一直生活在第一语言环境中,他就能学到一种漂亮的母语。如果想学好外语,必须下大功夫模仿,采取多种方式,利用一切机会进行模仿。埃克斯利(Eckersley,C.E.1974)说过,毫无疑问,模仿是成功的钥匙,也许是把金钥匙。(There is no doubt that imitation is one of the keys, perhaps the golden key ,to success.)有人认为模仿很简单,好学,其实不然。养成一个好的模仿习惯并不容易,这种模仿只有像学母语那样,方可学好。不下功夫,以为轻而易举可以模仿好外语语音是不可能的。

因此,要想学好外语就要在模仿上下功夫,因为外语语言能否学好,在很大程度上决定于听准外语老师发音的能力和学习者的模仿能力以及反复模仿的耐心。如果跟着外语老师念一遍,过后一劳永逸,那是学不好外语的。所以,一定要持之以恒地模仿、重复、练习。“听别人怎样说,就照样跟着说。”这是学习语言的必由之路。

二、英语思维模式的培养应该培养自己摆脱母语的影响,用英语想英语。

用英语想英语,指的是在使用英语时用英语想(think in English),而不是用本族语想。用英语想,也可以说成用英语思考。学英语而不学用英语思考,一定学不好。用英语思考,就是在使用英语进行表达和理解时,没有本族语思考的介入,没有“心译”的介入,或者说本族语思考的介入被压缩到了极不明显的程度,自己也感觉不到“心译”的负担。这才是真正流利,熟练的境界和标志。

用英语思考并不神秘,也非高不可攀。初学时,“心译”的介入很明显,但时间一长,反复运用的次数越来越多,“心译”的程度就会越来越小,以至接近于消失。可见,培养英语思考的基本途径是系统的大量的反复使用,是实践练习。语言是工具。使用任何工具都有一个从不熟练到熟练的过程,在不熟练的阶段,多余的动作很明显,总要一边做一边考虑。初学者使用外语时,“心译”就是这种多余的活动,是一边用一边考虑的表现。这里所说的考虑实际上是在大脑里进行的对将要表现出来的外部活动的一种检验。用本族语交际时,也有考虑考虑再说的情况,可以说是在心里把原来要说的话转成或翻译为另外一些说法进行掂量。但由于习以为常,所以不会给人造成负担和精神紧张。而在用英语交际时,由于怕错,所以想了又想,而由于英语不熟,语汇不多,所以就求助于本族语,产生“心译”。因此,培养用英语思考,消除“心译”,主要消除学生怕错的紧张心理。

学习英语、使用英语都要用思想。思想要有逻辑性。逻辑指思维的规律性。思想的逻辑性,条理性在很大程度上取决于人的大脑对客观事物反映的系统性和所掌握语言的系统程度。语言问题与逻辑问题是密切联系的。学生使用英语进行表达或理解别人用英语表达的思想时,所遇到的困难虽然表现为语言上的困难,但实质上有相当一部分,或在相当程度上乃是逻辑上的困难。表达不好,常常是思路不清,理解不好,则常常是推理能力差。因此,为了培养用英语思考,就要加强英语练习的逻辑性,注意按照英语所反映的客观事物的多种联系,从性质、属性、层次、因果等各方面的关系,对练习的形式和内容进行组织,训练学生成套地表达和理解,形成以英语为外壳的思维定势,相应的英语材料则以连锁反应的方式在大脑里源源不断地涌现。

摆脱母语影响的教育,用英语想英语应表现在课堂上的每一分钟。

(一)营造良好的思维环境,激活学生学习思维。

1.融洽师生关系,激发用英语思考的兴趣。

2.培养学生的独立学习能力,让他们有更多的用英语想英语,独立思维的时间和空间。

3.给予成功的机会,增强学习情趣,激发用英语思维。

(二)创造生动的语言氛围,提高学生的学习积极性。

1.用英语授课,坚持用英语和学生交流,给学生创造语言环境,挖掘教材本身的情趣,科学有效地利用并采用灵活多样的方式,以活跃课堂气氛,激起学生内在学习动力。

2.运用学习规律,调动学习兴趣。利用学生已有的知识引出新知识,以旧带新,由浅入深,由易到难,多启发,少说教,使语言操练和实践达到最佳效果。

3.加强语言实践,保持学习兴趣。教师可利用实物、卡片、挂图、录音机、投影仪及多媒体电脑等多种视听手段,把真实的方式带进课堂,丰富英语教学,为学生提供各种练习环境,使学生有身临其境之感,训练学生的英语思维,减少汉语媒介的中间环节,加深学生对英语语言的认识,提高自觉运用语言的能力。

摆脱母语影响用英语想英语还应表现在把它延伸到课下的课余活动中去。

(一)办英语墙报,每个班级应定期出墙报。

(二)设立英语图书角。

(三)设立校园英语电台,创设新闻联播、英文歌曲欣赏、娱乐动态等节目。

(四)设立丰富多彩的课外活动,如英语晚会、英语报告会、收看英语影视、英语学习作业展览、英语短剧表演等。

思维方式的培养并非易事,因为你是在母语大环境的影响下,要改变学生的思维方式,你就要营造一个英语的语言环境,在好的外语环境中,外语思考就容易实现。

三、英语思维方式的形成应培养学生的英语语感。

语感(Speech feeling)是人们对语言的直接感觉,是系统综合的语言感知力,是直接、敏锐的语言领悟力。而英语语感是语言的发展开始走向成熟期的一种心理现象,是对语言的语音、语义、语法、语气等综合运用所自然产生的激活效应,是对语言熟练掌握而自然生成的、不假思考的语言敏悟性。语感是一种十分抽象的东西,只有当你有了一定的阅读量之后,你才能产生语感,你才知道哪个词该重读,哪个词该轻读,哪几个词为一个意群。语感的产生是英语思维方式的开始。

西方著名的语言学家和心理学家乔姆斯基(Chomsky)认为语感是语言学习的核心,语感越强就越能创造性地学习和使用语言。通过大量的语言信息的刺激就可以逐步获得语感。

语感培养的方法主要是多听、多看、多背诵。

所谓多听就是要认真听老师的英语讲述,尽快听懂课堂用语和日常交际用语。要多听课文录音和听力材料。要多进行听写测试。多听英美人的讲话,多听真实语言材料,如天气预报、广播、对话、广告等。因为真实语言环境里面的英语语速正常,是有明显的口语发音特征,如连续、弱读、缩略等,而且社会交际中的语言常常是自然而然地抑扬顿挫,富有情感,通过听口语化的语言材料可以使自己沉浸在真实的英语语言环境中。大量的听力训练及跟读、跟唱模仿可以缩短自身的语言与所听到的地道英语之间的距离。从而有利于讲出自然、流畅的英语。

所谓多看,就是多看英美人写的文章,特别要注意那些句子中所有的单词你都认识,但就是理解不了这个句子的意思的句子。这些句子之所以理解不了,一是因为对句子理解不透,对某个词你只理解它其中的一种解释,而不知它在句子中还有别的解释。如cell一词在医学上的解释为“细胞”,在物理学上的解释为“电池”,在通讯工程中的解释为“手机”。一个词在不同行业中有不同的解释。二是因为文化和语言习惯上的差异。经常性的阅读,尤其是英语原文,原汁原味,手不释卷,语感也来了。

所谓背诵,是一种强化与集中的语言信息的刺激行为,它通过对语言材料进行反复朗读、理解到思维加工形成记忆获得大量的语言、词语、语法和语用等信息的输入,使学生逐渐提高对英语思维形式的感受能力,形成良好的语感,有效克服来自母语的干扰。实践证明,一个大量诵读英语文章的学生,即使对句子不作语法分析,在解决单选、完形填空、短文改错等题型时,准确率也往往是挺高的。熟能生巧,语感正是他们准确捕捉信息的巧妙感受的体现,这种特殊感觉正来源于阅读和背诵的积累。

用英语思维是许多英语学习者都希望达到的一种境界,因为这是用英语流畅地表达思想的基础。中西文差异很大,英语和汉语的表达方式也不同。对于一个生活在非英语环境中的中国学生来说,要做到部分或全部用英文来思考确有很大难度,但也不是可望而不可即。要尽量了解英语国家的文化背景知识,养成用英语而不是汉语的思维来理解英语。

高级口译笔记——文化交流(Cultural Exchange)

一、词汇

汉字的四声(平声、上声、仄声和去声)the four tones of Chinese characters, namely, the level tone, the rising tone, the falling-rising tone, and the falling tone

笔画stroke

部首radical

偏旁basic character component

象形文字pictograph

独角戏monodrama/one-man play

皮影戏shadow play

折子戏opera highlights

单口相声monologue comic talk

对口相声comic cross talk

说书monologue story-telling

传说legend

神话mythology

寓言fable

武术martial art

气功controlled breathing exercise

气功疗法breathing technique therapy

春联spring couplet

剪纸paper-cut

戏剧脸谱theatrical mask

草药的四气:寒、热、温、凉four properties of medicinal herb: cold, hot, warm and cool

草药的五味:酸、苦、甘、辛、咸five tastes of medicinal herb: sour, bitter, sweet, hot and salty

二十四节气the twenty-four solar terms

天干地支the heavenly stems and earthly branches

清明节the Pure Brightness Day

端午节the Dragon Boat Festival

中秋节the Mid-Autumn Festival

文化事业cultural undertaking

民族文化national culture

民间文化folk culture

乡土文化native/country culture

跨文化交流cross-cultural communication

文化冲击culture shock

表演艺术performing art

舞台艺术stage art

流行艺术popular/pop art

高雅艺术elegant/high art

电影艺术cinematographic art

十四行诗sonnet

三幕六场剧a three-act and six-scene play

音乐舞台剧musical

复活节Easter

万圣节Halloween

内容与形式的统一unity of content and form

古为今用,洋为中用。

Make the past serve the present and the foreign serve China.

中国是一个历史悠久、文化灿烂的多民族国家。

China is a multinational country with a long history and splendid culture.

文化交流不是让外国文化吞没自己的文化,而是为了丰富和充实本民族的文化。

Cultural exchange is by no means a process of losing one’s won culture to a foreign culture, but one of inriching a nation’s own culture.

二、练习

【难度指数】☆☆☆

【难易程度】a piece of cake

筷子起源于中国,现在许多亚洲国家都使用它。第一批筷子是骨头或玉制成的。在春秋时期出现了铜制和铁制的筷子。

在古代,富人家用玉或金子制成筷子以显示其家庭的富有。许多帝王有银制的筷子来检查他们的食物是否被投了毒。

友情提示:

筷子:chopsticks

玉:jade

高级口译笔记——旅游观光(Tourism)

一、词汇

中国国家旅游局China National Tourism Administration

中国国际旅行社China International Travel Service

旅游管理局tourist administration burear

旅行社travel service/agency

旅游公司tourism company

春/秋游spring/autumn outing

假日旅行vacation tour

目的地destination

自然景观natural scenery/attraction

人文景观places of historic figures and cultural heritage

名山大川famous mountains and great rivers

名胜古迹scenic spots and historical sites

佛教名山famous Buddhist mountain

五岳five great mountains

避暑山庄mountain resort

度假胜地holiday resort

避暑胜地summer resort

自然保护区nature reserve

国家公园national park

旅游景点tourist attraction

古建筑群ancient architectural complex

园林建筑garden architecture

山水风光scenery with mountains and rivers

诱人景色inviting views

湖光山色landscape of lakes and hills

青山绿水green hills and clear waters

景色如画picturesque views

金石印章metal and stone seals

石刻碑文stone inscriptions

天下第一泉the finest spring under heaven

石舫stone boat

水榭waterside house

莲花池lotus pond

国画traditional Chinese painting

山水/水墨画landscape/ink painting

手工艺品artifact; handicrafts

陶器earthenware

折扇folding fan

木/竹/贝雕wood/bamboo/shell carving

联合国教科文组织UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

国民生产总值GNP gross national product

国内生产总值GDP gross domestic product

二、例句

1.桂林山水甲天下,阳朔山水甲桂林。

Guilin landscape tops those elsewhere, and Yangshuo landscape tops that of Guilin.

2.这座寺庙历史悠久,可追溯到初唐时期。

The temple has a long history dating back to the early period of the Tang Dynasty.

3.该城市有全国规模最大、最负盛名的园林。

The city boasts the largest and the most famous garden in the country.

三、练习

上海市英语高级口译资格证书实考试题

【难度指数】☆☆☆

【难易程度】适中

加拿大幅员辽阔,其面积仅次于俄罗斯。可是它只有2600万人,是联合王国人口的一半还不到。

国土的三分之一覆盖着森林,还有大片的草原,无数的湖泊和河流。其气候差异甚大。

除了温哥华以外,冬天异常寒冷。加拿大的夏天总的来说天气暖和,特别是内陆地区,因此你只需要轻薄的衣服。

温哥华Vancouver

高级口译笔记——人物访谈(Interview)

VOCABLULARY

采访人interviewer

被采访人interviewee

常驻记者resident correspondent

特派记者staff correspondent

驻外国记者foreign correspondent

现场报道on-the-spot report; live report

新闻发布会news briefing

记者招待会press/news conference

消息灵通人士well-informed source

权威人士/来源authoritative source

可靠消息reliable news

新闻/通讯稿news release

头条新闻top/headline news

标题新闻headline news

内幕新闻inside story

花边新闻box news

时事current news

杂闻sidelights

专题报道special report

专栏作家columnist

特约撰稿人staff writer

自由撰稿人free-lancer

无可奉告no comment

记者证press card

通讯社news agency

新华社Xinhua News Agency

路透社(英)Reuter’s News Agency

美联社(美)Associated Press

塔斯社(俄)TASS; Telegraphic Agency of Soviet Union

每日电讯报(英)The Daily Telegraph

纽约时报The New York Times

华尔街时报The Wall Street Journal

华盛顿邮报The Washington Post

高级口译笔记——信息时代(The Information Age)

第一部分词汇

新兴产业emerging industry

朝阳产业sunrise industry

网络产业Internet industry

虚拟现实virtual reality

虚拟商店virtual store

兼容性计算机平台compatible computing platform

微型浏览器microbrowser

宽带技术broadband technology

拨号上网调制解调器dial-up modem

交互式多媒体interactive multimedia

交互式电子书籍interactive e-book

界面interface

无线掌上导航器wireless palm pilot

蜂窝通信cellular communications

家用电器household electrical appliances

局域网Intranet

网站website

网民netizen

网吧cybercafe

网络世界cyber world

网上贸易cyberbusiness

网上交易networked transaction

上市be listed on the stock market

市值stock value

税后利润after-tax profit

中国证监会China Securities Regulatory Commision

纳斯达克NASDAQ National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations

ADSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line,不对称数字订阅线路

Delphi:读音/′delfai/,特尔斐,古希腊城市名,被古希腊人当成世界的中心,因有阿波罗神殿而出名。在电脑英语中指美国宝兰(Borland)公司的一种可视化、面向对象、事件驱动的电脑编程语言。

DLL:Dynamic Link Library,动态链接库

DNS: Domain Name System,域名系统

FTP: File Transfer Protocol,文件传输协议

Ghost: General Hardware Oriented System Transfer,全面硬件导向系统转移

HTML: HyperText Markup Language,超文本标记语言

HTTP: HyperText Transfer Protocol,超文本传输协议

IP: Internet Protocol,网际协议

ISDN: Integrated Service Digital Network,综合服务数字网络

ISP: Internet Service Provider,因特网服务提供商

Java:由美国太阳(Sun)公司推出的新型面向对象程序设计语言。Java集面向对象、平台无关性、稳固性、安全性、多线程等诸多特性于一体,增加了异常处理、网络编程等方面的功能,特别适合于Internet应用的开发,是实现“一个世界,一个网络”构想的关键。用Java编写的各类软件能真正做到“Write Once,Run anywhere(一次写成,到处运行)”,也就是说,相同的软件可在不同计算机上运行,无论是PC机、苹果机、UNIX计算机、还是顶置盒、PDA(个人数据助理)乃至智能元器件无一例外。

LAN: Local Area Network,局域网

MIDI:Musical Instrument Digital Interface,乐器数字接口

MPEG:是Motion Picture Experts Group的,运动图像专家组

MSN: Microsoft Network,微软网络

OCR:Optical Character Recognition,光学字符识别

OEM:Original Equipment Manufacturer,原始设备制造商

RAM:Random Access Memory,随机存储器,即人们常说的“内存”。

ROM:Read-Only Memory,只读存储器。

第二部分例句

据中国因特网信息中心的统计数据,中国的公共网络已覆盖365个城市,上网电脑达520万台,经常上网者达1,260万人以上,网址有32,000个。

According to statistics from China Internet Network Information Center, the public network covers 365 cities, and the number of on-line computers reached 5.2 million, with 12.6 million regular Internet users and 23,000 web sites.

今天的因特网具有强大的通信功能,它可以提供电子邮件、即时信息和聊天室等多种通信方式。

Today’s Internet is a powerful way to communicate, including e-mail, instant messaging and chatroom services.

关注未来因特网的最佳方法是了解今日的因特网存在着什么问题。

The best way of looking at the Internet of the future is to ask what is wrong with today’s.

今天,商务和通信二十四小时不停地进行着。在有线电视的新闻节目中所报道的事件不是在几点钟发生,而是在一个小时或30分钟前发生。当地时间已不再是一个有意义的时间标志。

Today, commerce and communications never cease but go around the clock. On cable-TV news shows, events did not happen at which hour, but an hour or 30 minutes ago. Local time is no longer the meaning marker of events.

高级口译笔记——饮食文化(Catering Culture)

VOCABLULARY

烹调术cookery

色、香、味color, aroma and taste

佐料seasoning

刀功slicing technique

清炒plain-frying

煸stir-frying

爆quick-frying

炸deep-frying

煎pan-frying

焙roasting

清蒸steaming

氽quick-boiling

熏smoking

腌salting

食谱recipe

回锅肉twice-cooked pork slices in brown sauce

炸猪排fried pork chop

北京烤鸭roast Beijing duck

什锦炒蔬stir-fried mixed vegetables

酸辣汤hot and sour soup

鸡茸蘑菇汤cream of mushroom with chicken

主食staple food

馒头steamed bread

米饭steamed rice

扬州炒饭Yangchow fried rice

冷面cold noodle

炒米粉fried ground rice noodles

炸酱面noodles with fried brown sauce paste

油条fried twisted stick

锅贴pan-fried dumping

花卷steamed twisted roll

小笼包子steamed meat dumpling

粽子rice dumpling wrapped in reed leaves

黑啤dark beer

黄酒/花雕酒yellow rice wine

烈酒spitits/ strong liquor

白干white liquor

佐餐酒table wine

(酒)加冰块的on the rocks

(酒)不加冰块的straight up

小啜sip

矿泉水mineral water

红茶black tea

清咖啡black coffee

全脂/脱脂奶whole/skim milk

酸奶yoghurt

粟子chestnut

马蹄梨water chestnut

莲子lotus seed

藕lotus root

猕猴桃kiwi fruit

山楂haw

枣Chinese date

餐前开胃点心appretizer

主菜main course

附菜side dish

餐后甜食dessert

什锦色拉mixed fruit salad with ham

什锦水果圣代mixed fruit sundae

民族风味餐ethnic food

小吃snack

冷盘cold dish

点心pastry

餐桌圆转盘Lazy Susan

PRACTICE

Translate the following passage into English

评判中餐烹调的优劣可依据中餐的三大要素,即“色、香、味”。“色”作为“色、香、味”三要素中的首要标准,充分体现在宴会菜肴的装盘、摆放和图案上。最能显示色彩的是首先上桌的好道煞费苦心而精心制作的冷盘。“香”不仅是指鼻子对食物的直接感受,它还包括所选原料的新鲜成度以及佐料的合理搭配。“味”则体现了恰到好处的调味艺术,当然它也包括食物的质地,以及切菜的刀功。色、香、味这三大要素的高品质,只有通过选料、调料、适时烹调、把握火候、装盘上桌这些微妙步骤的细心协调,才能取得。

高级口译笔记——谚语口译(Interpreting Proverbs)①

谚语作为一种以简单通俗的语言来表达深刻道理的语句,常为人们所引用。千百年来各国之间或多或少的文化交流,往往会使一个民族的谚语跨越疆界,广为流传于其它民族。许多谚语流传甚广,早已为我们所熟知。因此,谚语的口译并非是一道不可逾越的障碍。谚语的口译大致可分为三种类型,一种是“形同意合”的口译,第二种是“形似意合”的口译,第三种是“形异意合”的口译。

一、“形同意合”的谚语

A fall into the pit, a gain in your wit.

吃一堑,长一智。

All shall be well, Jack shall have Jill.

有情人终成成眷属。

A man should not bite the hand that feeds him.

不要恩将仇报。

Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.

情人眼里出西施。

Business is business.

公事公办。

Facts speak louder than words.

事实胜于雄辩。

Failure is the mother of success.

失败乃成功之母。

Fish in troubled waters.

浑水摸鱼。

Friends must part.

聚散离合总有时。/天下无不散之宴席。

Great minds think alike.

英雄所见略同。

Health is better than wealth.

家有万贯财,不如一身健。

Hedges have eyes, walls have ears.

隔篱有眼,隔墙有耳。

In time of peace prepare for war.

居安当思危。

Like father, like son.

有其父,必有其子。

Man proposes, God disposes.

谋事在人,成事在天。

Misfortunes never come alone.

祸不单行。

Money can’t buy time.

寸金难买寸光阴。

More haste, less speed.

欲速则不达。

Out of office, out of danger.

无官一身轻。

Out of sight, out of mind./Far from eye, far from heart.

眼不见为净。

Pride goes before a fall.

骄者必败。

The style is the man.

文如其人。

Time and tide wait for no man.

时不我待。/岁月无情。

The remembrance of the past is the teacher of the future.

前事不忘后事之师。/前车之覆,后车之鉴。

To teach is to learn.

教学相长。

The tongue cuts the throat.

祸从口出。/言多必失。

高级口译笔记——谚语口译(Interpreting Proverbs)②

二、形似意合的谚语

1. A new broom sweeps clean.

新官上任三把火。

2. All roads lead to Rome./ All rivers run into the sea.

殊途同归。

3. As a man sows, so he shall reap.

种瓜得瓜,和豆得豆。

4. A sparrow cannot understand the ambition of a swan.

燕雀安知鸿鹄之志。

5. A straight foot is not afraid of a crooked shoe.

身正不怕影儿斜。

6. A word spoken is past recalling.

一言既出,驷马难追。

7. Beat the dog before the lion.

杀鸡儆猴。

8 Better an open enemy than a false friend.

明枪易躲,暗箭难防。

9. Diamond cut diamond.

强中更有强中手。

10. Do one thing under cover of another.

明修栈道,暗度陈仓。

11. Dogs bite in every country.

天下乌鸦一般黑。

12. Every potter praises his pot.

王婆卖瓜,自卖自夸。

13. Fine feathers make fine birds.

佛要金装,人要衣装。

14. Gifts blind the eyes.

拿了手短,吃了嘴软。

15. Good wine needs no bush.

酒香不怕巷子深。

16. Have a card up one’s sleeve.

胸有成竹。

17. He cries wine and sells vinegar.

挂羊头,卖狗肉。

18. He takes a spear to kill a fly.

杀鸡用牛刀。

19. In for a penny, in for a pound.

一不做,二不休。

20. It is better to be the head of a dog/lizard than the tail of a lion.

宁为鸡首,不为牛后。

21. It is better to die than to live when life is a disgrace./ Better die with honor than live with shame.

宁可玉碎,不为瓦全。

22. Judge not a book by its cover.

人不可貌相,海不可斗量。

23. Kill two birds with one stone.

一箭双雕。/一石二鸟。

24. Let sleeping dogs lie.

勿打草惊蛇。

25. Love me, love my dog.

爱屋及乌。

26. Much will have more.

得陇望蜀。/得寸进尺。

27. Once bit, twice shy.

一朝被蛇咬,十年怕井绳。

28. Peace on the forehead and war in the mind.

口蜜腹剑。

29. Put the cart before the horse.

本未倒置。

30. Speak of the devil( and he will appear).

说曹操,曹操到。

31. Teach fish to swim.

班门弄斧。

32. The pupil outdoes the master.

青出于蓝而胜于蓝。

33. The same knife cuts bread and fingers.

水能载舟,亦能覆舟。

34. The sauce is better than the fish.

喧宾夺主。

35. There are plenty of fish in the sea.

天涯何处无芳草。

36. There is no smoke without fire.

无风不起浪。

高级口译笔记——谚语口译(Interpreting Proverbs)③

三、形异意合的谚语,这类谚语常常会被望“形”生“意”,造成误译。

1. A bad conscience is a snake in one’s heart.

做贼心虚。

2. Accidents will happen.

天有不测风云,人有旦夕祸福。

3. A clear conscience is a sure card.

为人不做亏心事,半夜不怕鬼敲门。

4. A hedge between keeps friendship green.

君子之交淡如水。

5. All your swans are geese.

事与愿违。

6. As you make the bed, so you must lie in it.

自食其果。

7. A watched pot never boils.

心急吃不了热豆腐。

8. Count one’s chickens before they are hatched.

盲目乐观。

9. Danger is next neighbor to security.

塞翁失马,安知非福?

10. Do in Rome as Romans do.

入乡随俗。

11. Don’t trouble trouble until trouble troubles you.

顺其自然。

12. Everybody’s business is nobody’s business.

三个和尚无水吃。

13. Justice has long arms.

天网恢恢,疏而不漏。

14. He knows most who speaks least./Still water runs deep.

大智若愚。

15. Late fruit keeps well.

大器晚成。

16. Many kiss the baby by the name of the nurse’s sake.

醉翁之意不在酒。

17. Misfortune might be a blessing in disguises.

祸兮福所倚,福兮祸所伏。

18. Names are debts.

树大招风。

19. Nothing venture, nothing have.

不入虎穴,焉得虎子。

20. Rest breeds rust.

生命在于运动。

21. Rome was not built in a day.

冰冻三尺非一日之寒。

22. Save your breath to cool your porridge.

各人自扫门前雪,莫管他人瓦上霜。

23. Short pleasure, long lament.

一失足成千古恨。

24. Stick together through thick and thin.

患难与共。

25. Take things as they come.

既来之则安之。

26. The pot calls the kettle black.

五十步笑一百步。

27. The shepherd would rather lose the wool than the sheep.

留得青山在,不怕没柴烧。

28. Things done cannot be undone.

木已成舟。/覆水难收。

29. True blue will never stain.

真金不怕火炼。

30. You cannot make a crab walk straight.

江山易移,本性难改。

高级口译笔记——同声传译(Undertaking Simultaneous Interpretation)

同声传译,又称同步口译,是译员在不打断讲话者演讲的情况下,不停地将其讲话内容传译给听众的一种口译方式。同声传译的最大优点在于效率高,可以保证讲话才作连贯发言,不影响或中断讲话者的思路,有利于听众对发言全文的通篇理解。

一、在同声传译活动中对译员的要求

1、同声传译要求译员有良好的听觉解意能力。同声传译是一种即听即译的活动,听入与译出之间只保持几秒钟的时间距离,译员在口头传译几秒钟前听到的信息的同时,还必须耳听及解译新的信息。因此这种听觉解意能力非同一般意义的耳听会意能力,它指的是一种译员在有自我干扰的环境下及时听解信息的能力。

但是译员的听解并非完全是一种被动的行为,译中可以从大会的主题、发言者的立场、发言论题或论点的背景知识等示意因素,使自己的听译建筑在“上下文”的基础上,进而变被动听译为主动听译。

2、同声传译要求译员具备在听解的同时有迅速组织句子进行连贯流畅表达的能力。也许有人会认为,汉语是我们的母语,因此英译汉的困难在于能否及时听懂英语内容,不在于如何有汉语来组句和表达。这完全是对口译工作的一种误解。组句表达,无论是以外语还是以母语进行,都是一门学问,一种才能,尤其是在需要顾及听的内容的情况下。

二、同声传译的一些基本方法和技巧

1、意译

同声传译即听即译的特点,迫使译员不得不“一心二用”,使译员在翻译过程中难以做到“形”“意”两全。此外,译员在同步传译时迫于时间压力,也无法对目标语的表达形式斟词酌句一番。在“形”“意”难以两全的情况下,译员应采用意译的方法,以简洁的语言迅速将来源语所包含的概念和命题传达给听众。

2、顺译

顺译是指一种顺着来源语的词序,按部就班地选择目标语的对应词进行传译的方法。这里所讲的顺译仅限于顺结构、顺词序的传译,不包括词词对应的顺译。汉语和英语的基本句子结构均为“主—动—宾”结构,限定词(如数词和所有格代词)和形容词一般也都出现在名词前面,这为英汉顺译或汉英顺译提供了必要的条件。

3、截句

截句是指译员在同声传译过程中及时、适时截断来源语的长句,并按照目标语的表达习惯,将所听到的信息分解成短句,或重组成联句,然后传译过去。

词语置前

例:中国政府将一如既往地支持联合国主持正义、维护和平、促进全球繁荣的行动。

The Chinese government will as always support the UN efforts to uphold justice, maintain peace and promote global prosperity.

词语后置或暂存

例:联合国维和部队应该驻扎在那一地区,一直到所有各方签署了和约为止。我们的这一立场已得到公认。

Our position is widely received that the UN peace-keeping force will stay in that region until a peaceful agreement has been signed by all concerned parties.

添词

例:我很高兴地向各位通报,中美就知识产权问题签署了一项谅解备忘录,从而避免了一场可能出现的贸易战。

I feel very pleased to report to you that China and the United States signed a Memorandum of Understanding in terms of protecting intellectual property rights, an act that has averted a potential trade war.

减词

例:中国同其周边国家的关系比以往任何时期都好,这种十分珍贵的睦邻友好关系无论对中国人民还是这些国家的人们来说,都极为有益。

China’s relations with its neighboring countries are better than ever before, a situation that best represents the interests of the Chinese people and the peoples of other countries concerned.

重复

例:多年来,中国经济的持续增长发挥了越来越重要的作用,这种作用在于促进了亚太地区乃至全球经济的健康发展。

Over the years, China’s sustained economic growth has played an increasing more important role in boosting the healthy economic development in the Asian-Pacific region and the world as a whole.

同声传译的才能不是一种可望而不可即的天赋才能。常言说得好,“工夫不负有心人”。只要我们细心钻研同传知识和技巧,积极参与同传强化训练,水到自然渠成。

高级口译笔记——商务谈判(Business Negotiation)

第一部分基本词汇

询价make an inquiry

报价quotation

报/发盘offer

底盘floor offer

实/虚盘firm/non-firm offer

开/收盘opening/closing price

现/期货价spot/forward price

还盘counter-offer

回佣return commission

到岸价C.I.F.(即Cost, Insurance and Freight)

到岸加佣金价C.I.F.C.(即Cost, Insurance, Freight and Commission)

现货spot goods

库存有限limited stock

批发价wholesale price

零售价retail price

净利润net profit

定金down payment

分期付款payment by installment

现金结算cash settlement

信用证结算payment by letter of credit(L/C)

股东shareholder; stockholder

我方on our part

双赢战略win-win strategy

中止合同terminate the contract

提出索赔lodge a claim

要求赔偿损失claim for a compensation of the loss/damage

贸易索赔business claim

补偿贸易compenstion trade

第二部分词语扩展

商品交易会Commodities Fair

经营范围line/scope of business

独家经销代理exclusive selling agency

市场准入market access

机床machine tools

汽车零部件auto parts

电子商务e-commerce; e-business

第三部分例句

请给我一个有效期为90天的C.I.F.报价,目的港为洛杉矶,报价含5%的佣金。

I’d like to hear your quotation on a C.I.F.Los Angeles basis valid for 90 days, with an inclusion of 5% angent’s commission in your quotation.

高级口译笔记——礼仪祝词(Ceremonial Speech)

第一部分基本词汇

开幕/闭幕式opening/closing ceremony

开幕词opening speech/address

致开幕词make an opening speech

友好访问goodwill visit

阁下Your/His/Her Honor/Excellency

贵宾distinguished guest

尊敬的市长先生Respected Mr.Mayor

远道而来/来自大洋彼岸的朋友friends coming from a distant land/the other side of the Pacific

东道国host country

宣布……开幕declare……open

值此之际on the occasion of

借此机会take this opportunity to

以……名义in the name of

本着……精神in the spirit of

代表on the behalf of

由衷的谢意heartfelt thanks

友好款待gracious hospitality

正式邀请officioa invitation

回顾过去look back on

展望未来look ahead/look into the future

最后in closing

圆满成功a complete success

提议祝酒propose a toast

第二部分词语扩展

一、政治词汇

亚太地区Asian-Pacific region

建交establishment of diplomatic relations between

互访exchange of visit

外交政策foreign policy

一贯奉行in persistent pursuit of

平等互利equality and mutual benefit

双边关系bilateral relations

持久和平lasting peace

二、政治词汇

贸易额trade volume

商业界business community

跨国公司transnational corporation

经济强国/经济大国/经济列强(视具体情况翻译)economic power

第三部分例句

1.我愿借此机会,代表我们代表团的全体成员,对我们东道主的诚挚邀请,表示真诚的谢意。

On the behalf of all the members of my mission, I would like to take this opportunity to express our sincere thanks to our host for their earnest invitation.

2.现在,我愉快地宣布第二十二届万国邮政联盟大会开幕。

Now, I have the pleasure to declare the 22nd Universal Postal Congress open.

3.我很荣幸地代表中国政府和人民向来自联合王国的代表团表示热烈的欢迎。

I have the honor to express this warm welcome on behalf of the Chinese Government and people to the delegation from the United Kingdom.

4.我谨向各位表示最热烈的欢迎。

I would like to extend my warmest welocme to all of you.

5.我预祝大会圆满成功!

I wish the conference a complete success!

高级口译笔记——外事接待(reception)

第一部分基本词汇

日程安排schedule

预订reserve

根据……的要求upon……request

专程造访come all the way

精心安排a thoughtful arrangement

排忧解难help out

第二部分词语扩展

机场大楼terminal building

候机大厅waiting hall

起飞时间departure/take-off time

抵达时间arrival time

海关the Customs

往返票round-trip ticket

入境/出境/旅游签证entry/exit/tourist visa

免税商店duty-free shop

豪华套房luxury suite

单/双人房single/double room

第三部分例句

1. You must be our long-expected guest,……

2. Excuse me, I haven’t had the honor of knowing you.

3. I’m glad to have the honor of introducing……

4. Small world, isn’t it?

5. Thank you for coming all the way to our company.

6. I hop you’ll enjoy your stay here.

7. host a receptipn banquet in your honor

高级口译笔记——称谓口译

一、以“总……”表示的首席长官,可选择general、chief、head这类词表示。

总书记general secretary

总工程师chief engineer

总会计师chief accountant

总经理general manager

总代理general agent

总教练head coach

二、一些行业的职称头衔,直接用“高级”或“资深”来表示,可用"senior"来称呼。

高级记者senior reporter

高级讲师senior lecturer

三、“首席”英语常用chief来表达。

首席执行官chief cxecutive officer(CEO)

首席顾问chief advisor

首席检察官chief inspector

四、还有一些高级职务带“长”字,例如:

参谋长chief of staff

护士长head nurse

秘书长secretary-general

五、以“副”字的表示副职的行政职务头衔,可用vice、deputy表达。

副总统vice president

副主席vice chairman

副总理vice minister

副秘书长deputy secretary-general

副书记deputy secretary

副市长deputy mayor

六、学术头衔的“副”职称,常用associate表示。

副教授associate professor

副研究员associate research fellow

副审判长associate judge

副主任医师associate doctor

七、学术头衔中的初级职称如“助理”,我们可以用assistant来称呼。

助理教授assistant professor

助理研究员assistant research fellow

助理工程师assistant engineer

八、一般说来,“代理”可译作acting,例如:

代理市长acting mayor

代理总理acting premier

代理主任acting director

九、常务”可以用“managing"表示。

常务理事managing director

常务副校长managing vice president

十、执行”可译作executive

执行秘书executive secretary

执行主席executive chairman

十一、还有很多称谓的英语表达方式难以归类,这就需要我们日积月累,逐步总结。例如:

办公室主任office manager

车间主任workshop manager

客座教授visiting professor

村长village head

税务员tax collector

股票交易员stock dealer

十二、最后是我们国家特有的一些荣誉称号的口译。

劳动模范model worker

优秀员工ortstanding employee

标兵pacemaker

三好学生"triple-A" outstanding student; outstanding student

超市食品名称英汉对照

A.肉品类(鸡,猪,牛)

Fresh Grade Legs大鸡腿

Fresh Grade Breast鸡胸肉

Chicken Drumsticks小鸡腿

Chicken Wings鸡翅膀

Minced Steak绞肉

Pigs Liver猪肝

Pigs feet猪脚

Pigs Kidney猪腰

Pigs Hearts猪心

Pork Steak没骨头的猪排

Pork Chops连骨头的猪排

Rolled Porkloin卷好的腰部瘦肉

Rolled Pork Belly卷好的腰部瘦肉连带皮

Pork sausage meat做香肠的绞肉

Smoked Bacon醺肉

Pork Fillet小里肌肉

Spare Rib Pork chops带骨的瘦肉

Spare Rib of Pork小排骨肉

Pork ribs肋骨可煮汤食用

Black Pudding黑香肠

Pork Burgers汉堡肉

Pork-pieces一块块的廋肉

Pork Dripping猪油滴

Lard猪油

Hock蹄膀

Casserole Pork中间带骨的腿肉

Joint有骨的大块肉

Stewing Beef小块的瘦肉

Steak & Kidney牛肉块加牛腰

Frying steak可煎食的大片牛排

Mimced Beef牛绞肉

Rump Steak大块牛排

Leg Beef牛键肉

OX-Tail牛尾

OX-heart牛心

OX-Tongues牛舌

Barnsley Chops带骨的腿肉

Shoulder Chops肩肉

Porter House Steak腰上的牛排肉

Chuck Steak头肩肉筋、油较多

Tenderised Steak拍打过的牛排

Roll牛肠

Cowhells牛筋

Pig bag猪肚

Homeycome Tripe蜂窝牛肚

Tripe Pieces牛肚块

Best thick seam白牛肚

B.海产类

Herring鲱

Salmon鲑

Cod鳕

Tuna鲔鱼

Plaice比目鱼

Octopus章鱼

Squid乌贼

Dressed squid花枝

Mackerel鲭

Haddock北大西洋产的鳕鱼

Trout鳟鱼、适合蒸来吃

Carp鲤鱼

Cod Fillets鳕鱼块,可做鱼羹,或炸酥鱼片都很好吃

Conger (Eel)海鳗

Sea Bream海鲤

Hake鳕鱼类

Red Mullet红鲣,可煎或红烧来吃

Smoked Salmon熏鲑*

Smoked mackerel with crushed pepper corn带有黑胡椒粒的熏鲭*

Herring roes鲱鱼子

Boiled Cod roes鳕鱼子

Oyster牡蛎

Mussel蚌、黑色、椭圆形、没壳的即为淡菜

Crab螃蟹

Prawn虾

Crab stick蟹肉条

Peeled Prawns虾仁

King Prawns大虾

Winkles田螺

Whelks Tops小螺肉

Shrimps小虾米

Cockles小贝肉

Labster龙虾

C.蔬果类

Potato马铃薯

Carrot红萝卜

Onion洋葱

Aubergine茄子

Celery芹菜

White Cabbage包心菜

Red cabbage紫色包心菜

Cucumber大黄瓜

Tomato蕃茄

Radish小红萝卜

Mooli白萝卜

Watercress西洋菜

Baby corn玉米尖

Sweet corn玉米

Cauliflower白花菜

Spring onions葱

Garlic大蒜

Ginger姜

Chinese leaves大白菜

Leeks大葱

Mustard & cress芥菜苗

Green Pepper青椒

Red pepper红椒

Yellow pepper黄椒

Mushroom洋菇

Broccoliflorets绿花菜

Courgettes绿皮南瓜,形状似小黄瓜,但不可生食

Coriander香菜

Dwarf Bean四季豆

Flat Beans长形平豆

Iceberg透明包心菜

Lettuce莴苣菜

Swede or Turnip芜菁

Okra秋葵

Chillies辣椒

Eddoes小芋头

Taro大芋头

Sweet potato蕃薯

Spinach菠菜

Beansprots绿豆芽

Peas碗豆

Corn玉米粒

Sprot高丽小菜心

Lemon柠檬

Pear梨子

Banana香蕉

Grape葡萄

Golden apple黄绿苹果、脆甜

Granny smith绿苹果、较酸

Bramleys可煮食的苹果

Peach桃子

Orange橙

Strawberry草莓

Mango芒果

Pine apple菠萝

Kiwi奇异果

Starfruit杨桃

Honeydew-melon蜜瓜

Cherry樱桃

Date枣子

lychee荔枝

Grape fruit葡萄柚

Coconut椰子

Fig无花果

D.其它

Long rice长米,较硬,煮前先泡一个小时

Pudding rice or short rice短米,较软

Brown rice糙米

THAI Fragrant rice泰国香米*

Glutinous rice糯米*

Strong flour高筋面粉

Plain flour中筋面粉

Self- raising flour低筋面粉

Whole meal flour小麦面粉

Brown sugar砂糖(泡奶茶、咖啡适用)

dark Brown Sugar红糖(感冒时可煮姜汤时用)

Custer sugar白砂糖(适用于做糕点)

Icing Sugar糖粉

Rock Sugar冰糖

Noodles面条

Instant noodles方便面

Soy sauce酱油,分生抽浅色及老抽深色两种

Vinger醋

Cornstarch太白粉

Maltose麦芽糖

Sesame Seeds芝麻

Sesame oil麻油

Oyster sauce蚝油

Pepper胡椒

Red chilli powder辣椒粉

Sesame paste芝麻酱

Beancurd sheet腐皮

Tofu豆腐

Sago西贾米

Creamed Coconut椰油

Monosidum glutanate味精

Chinese red pepper花椒

Salt black bean豆豉

Dried fish鱼干

Sea vegetable or Sea weed海带

Green bean绿豆

Red Bean红豆

Black bean黑豆

Red kidney bean大红豆

Dried black mushroom冬菇

Pickled mustard-green酸菜

Silk noodles粉丝

Agar-agar燕菜

Rice-noodle米粉

Bamboo shoots竹笋罐头

Star anise八角

Wantun skin馄饨皮

Dried chestuts干粟子

Tiger lily buds金针

Red date红枣

Water chestnuts荸荠罐头

Mu-er木耳

Dried shrimps虾米

Cashewnuts腰果

口译十大原则

1)动宾连接原则

考生在翻译动宾短语的时候,应先考虑宾语的成分。宾语可能为名词、名词词组和句子。不同成分的宾语决定了谓语的使用。比如在以下例子中“希望”的选择面很大,既可以用hope连接句子,也可以用hope for,look forward to等连接名词词组,那么考生就得考虑宾语更容易翻译成词组或句子。因此,动宾连接原则的核心思想是“先宾语,后谓语”,翻译会豁然开朗。

中国人民始终希望天下太平,希望各国人民友好相处。

The Chinese people are always looking forward to global peace and friendship among all nations.

The Chinese people are always hoping that the world is at peace and people of all nations will coexist friendlily.

2)时态原则

时态在翻译中比不像想象中那么简单,往往是考试中的一个难点。时态有时可以体现一种感情因素,特别是进行时的使用,比如在第一个例子中现在进行时的使用体现出对中华民族的一种褒扬、赞美的口吻,翻译出了这句话的“精、气、神”,最后一个例子中过去进行时时常表示一种“特有的行为”,通常是偏向于negative的口吻,所以我们发现这句话十有八九是美国人自己写的。

中华民族历来爱好自由和和平。

The Chinese people have always been cherishing freedom and peace.

The Chinese people always cherish freedom and peace.

The Chinese people are always cherishing freedom and peace.

中国过去是、现在是、将来是……

China was and remains to be …

中国人民更深感自由与和平的珍贵。

The Chinese people have cherished freedom and peace than ever.

届时,……

At that time, ……

到2007年,上海市人均国内生产总值预计达到7500美元。

By 2007, the per capita GDP in Shanghai is expected to reach US$7500.

As a result we were going to be living in a fundamentally unmanaged economic system.

从而我们可能要生活在一个根本无法掌控的经济体制中。

After all, China and Cuba and other targets of U.S. –led criticism in the committee were always going to vote and lobby against Washington.

毕竟中国、古巴等一些在人权委员会中受到以美国为首批评的国家,总是投票或游说反对美国政府。

3)主语确定原则

由于英语是主语显著语(subject-prominent language),构建在主谓轴(subject-predicate pivot)上,主语决定了句法结构;汉语为语义性语言,其中主语的重要性相对较低,无主语的现象比比皆是。因此在汉英转化中最重要的就是确定主语,主语选择成功了,句子越翻越顺;选择失败,考生越翻越累。主语的确定归根结底有三种方法:使用原主语;重新确定主语;增补主语。

这一目标的实现,最直接的应该是老百姓住得更宽敞了,更舒服了。

The citizens will live more spaciously and comfortably, benefiting most directly from achieving the goal.

The idea of a national ID, however, was locked out of earlier drafts of legislation by a coalition of civil rights and ethnic groups, who opposed a requirement that all non-citizens carry identifying documents.

然而,持自由论观点的民众和少数民族反对一切美国公民必须随身携带身份证的规定,他们结成联盟,推翻了立法的最初几次草案中关于实施全国统一身份证的主张。

其实,撇开数学,绕过那一大堆公式,一门学科的基本思想还是可以被我们理解和欣赏的。

To be frank, if we leave aside mathematics and bypass the abundant formulas, the basic principles of the discipline (of science) are understandable and appreciable.

They cannot control who crosses their borders either physically or culturally.

无论是外人入境,或是文化入侵,政府都已无能为力。

They have been increasingly chagrined by Washington’s tendency to ignore the international consensus on issues ranging from the use of land mines to the Kyoto climate change treaty.

从地雷禁用条款到京都防止气候变暖条约等一些列问题,美国政府总是对国际舆论置若罔闻,使得这些(倒戈)国家越来越失望/懊恼。

4)谓语最小化原则

在汉译英中,动词的考察是必然的。其中动词和其他成分的转换也是重中之重。如果考生把所有的动词都翻译成动词的话,只能说明其还属于“入门”境界。因此在第一个例子中共出现7个动词,而在译文中只保留了4个动词。所以我们在翻译中一定要注意动词和其他词性的转换,常见减少谓语的方法有:

a)把动词变成名词

b)使用介词短语

c)使用分词短语

d)多使用to表示目的的状语

e)把并列谓语中最后一个谓语处理成“,which”的非限制性定语从句

虽然以上这些方法从本质上讲都是些小打小闹的“噱头”,但是不重视谓语的省略一定不会取得理想的成绩。

今年的亚太经济贸易合作组织会议将主要侧重两个方面:一是加强亚太经合组织成员之间的合作,共同应对可能出现的经济衰退,重树信心;二是继续推进亚太经合组织贸易投资自由化进程,推动世界贸易组织尽早开始新一轮谈判。

The APEC meeting in this year will focus mainly on two aspects: one is on strengthening the cooperation among all APEC members to cope with the possible economic recession with rebuilt-up confidence; the other is on promoting the liberalization of trade and investment among all APEC members for the start of a new round of negotiations by WTO.

显然,许多美国的传统支持国家没有投票支持美国,以此对美国奉行单边主义表示不满。

Many traditional U.S. supporters clearly withdrew their votes to signal displeasure over U.S. unilateralism.

5)动宾换序原则

在英译汉中,遇上特别长的宾语,初学者总是根据语法习惯亦步亦趋地处理主、谓、宾,结果造成庞大的宾语,头轻脚重,特别不符合汉语的习惯,汉语之所以不喜欢宾语从句,在于汉语喜用主谓短句,对于较长的宾语,一般有两种处理方式:一是把谓语变成直接能够接宾语的表达形式,如react to不必翻译成“对…作出反应”,可变成“面对…”,这种方法在口译中常常出现,因为口译往往无暇考虑句式的大变动;二是把宾语先译出,然后再译出主谓,如第一个例子,或使用谓语的相反含义,再接上原主语,如第二个例子,sustain表示“决定了”,那反义短语就是“取决于”。

The rest of the world will have to react to this millennial economic shift to Asia, and to the rising power of China.

在新千年,经济重心将向亚洲转移,中国将迅速崛起,世界其他地区将不得不对此做出反应。

The project budget sustains both the existence of graduate students and the fiscal solvency of the university.

研究生是否存在,大学是否存在资金偿还能力,这些都取决于项目预算。

6)句群逻辑关系原则

汉译英中的疑点就是处理句群关系,从逻辑上区分通常有六种:

a)表示原因关系

“因为…所以”,“因此…”,“由于…”

b)表示转折关系

“虽然…但是…”,“然而(不过)…”

c)表示条件关系

“如果…”,“假如…”,“只要…就…”,“一旦…”

d)表示让步关系

“尽管…”,“就算…也…”,“即使…也…”

e)表示时间先后关系

“…之后”,“接着…”

f)表示结果关系

“从而…”,“导致…”

经过二十多年的快速发展,中国西部地区已奠定了一定的物质技术基础,社会保持稳定,市场经济体制正在逐步建立和完善,为西部经济持续快速增长创造了有利的市场环境。

Thanks to the rapid development in the past 20-plus years, a relatively solid foundation in terms of material wealth and technology has been laid in the western region of China.

The rapid development in the past 20-plus years witnesses a relatively solid foundation in terms of material wealth and technology in the western region of China

中国将致力于建设国家创新体系,通过营造良好的环境,推进知识创新、技术创新和体制创新,这是中国实现跨世纪发展的必由之路。

Through creating a favorable background, China will be devoted to building a national system for innovation to promote the innovation in knowledge, technology and system, which is the only path/indispensable/essential for China to achieve cross-century/trans-century/century-crossing/turn-of-the-century development.

7)连接原则

高口翻译难度的侧重点在近几年发生了一个转换:从以前追求成语、俗语到现在语体、语言风格的怪异,比如老舍和钱钟书的“自传”。语言的绝对难度不难,但是形式游散,不容易连接成逻辑感强烈的英语。英语重形合,汉语重意合。所以连接原则首先要求考生具备强烈的“逻辑”使命感,多加连词,两三句之内就要考虑句群的关系,其次考生还要具备合句和缩句的能力,抓住主要谓语,最后换序译法也是考生必需的技能,有时突出重点,调整句序,也是必不可少的。

书无所不读,全无所惑,并不着急,教书做事,均甚认真,往往吃亏,也不后悔。

Not vexed by reading comprehensively though futilely, I deal seriously with teaching and handling affairs and have no regret for suffering losses.

中国加入世界贸易组织的谈判已经进行了15年了。中国的立场始终如一。

China has been engaged in the talks for entry into the WTO for 15 years with its consistent stance.

8)减少of原则

汉译英中,一出现“…的”许多学生立马想到of…的架构,这种思维模式主要是受到了所属关系的影响。of在英语当中主要是所属关系,而“…的”不仅有所属关系,而且有包含关系等,因此我们在翻译中要看清句子的主主语——真正意义上的主语,而不必选择句子的次主语——语法上的主语。比如在第一个例子中,主主语是“楼”,而次主语才是“质量”,因此如把此句翻成The quality of the building is poor.虽然也没有错,在考试中也不一定会扣分,但还是显得比较业余。另外在最后一个例子中,译文如译成The development of our relations has made us not only close fiends but also brothers,就显得特别地功利,好像表示我们关系的发展使我们成为兄弟了,而不是我们的关系。总而言之,我们并不是要刻意地减少of架构,而是把一些非定语关系的of架构转化为其它成分。

楼的质量不好。

The building is not well built.

经济全球化的深入发展和科学技术的迅猛进步

the furthering economic globalization and rapid/swift/speedy/prompt development of science and technology

中国的富强和发展不会对任何国家构成威胁。

A strong, prosperous and developed China will pose no threat to any countries.

我们之间关系的发展,使我们不仅成为亲密的朋友,而且成为兄弟。

Our relations have so grown that bind us not only as close friends but also as brothers.

9)名词词组与分句互译原则

汉语中的两大成分地位较低,分别是宾语和定语。在英译汉中,较长的宾语从句常常会转化为名词词组,比如在第一个例句中的“how”如果翻译为“如何化去税款”这个宾语从句,在汉语中就显得不伦不类,所有一些5W1H的疑问词基本上都有可能转化为名词,如when(时间),where(地点),who(人选),why(原因)。此外,对于修饰语较多的名词性短语,汉语也不喜欢用定语进行堆砌,而偏向用简单的主谓短语,如第二个例子中把“the most skeptical Gates”翻译成“一个持怀疑态度的盖茨”,就不如变成主谓短语“盖茨对此持怀疑态度”。

They provide a means by which wealthy people and corporations can in effect decide how their tax payments will be spent.

基金会提供了一种方式,可以让有钱人和大公司能实际支配花去税款的方式。

But the most skeptical Gates of the new millennium is someone who evinces a passion for giving and government aid.

但新千年盖茨对此持怀疑态度,热衷于施舍和政府援助。

Now, the debate has shifted away from the ethics of baby-making and toward the morality of cloning embryos for their cells and tissues, which might be used to treat diseases.

现在,争论已经从制造婴儿是否违背伦理,转到为提取用于治疗疾病的细胞和组织而克隆胚胎是否违背道德。

But such self-interest is hardly enlightened.

但这种做法只考虑个人利益,自然难以获得支持。

The project budget sustains both the existence of graduate students and the fiscal solvency of the university.

研究生是否存在,大学是否存在资金偿还能力,这些都取决于项目预算。

10)要词原则

无论是中口还是高口翻译篇章中,都有一些貌似十分简单的词,但这些词往往是这篇文章的杀手锏,难度往往高于那些成语、俗语和专业词。比如在第一个例子中的collectively,一般的译者马上会理解为“总而言之”“概括起来”的意思,只有当读完整句的时候,才明白是把亚洲国家整体经济规模“累加”起来,其中进行了转性译法,把副词转换为形容词或名词。这种词在每次考试中至少会有一个,可以被认为是拉开差距的地方。考生如能发现其中的“弦外之音”,将会极大的鼓舞自己的士气。

Collectively, the Asian Countries will have a larger economy than the rest of the world put together.

亚洲国家的经济总量将超过其他国家地区的总和。

From a small beginning at the turn of the century ……

本世纪初,基金会的数量并不多。

Inside these nations there will be mass prosperity, but with a large minority in serious poverty, and a small number who are very rich.

这些国家虽然呈现出欣欣向荣的态势,但其中还有许多处于极端贫穷的弱势人口,还有少部分人口极端富有。

The major feature of project money, whether its source is government or business, is that it is given on a contractual basis, a different contract for each project, so that the investigator’s independence rests upon his capacity to secure a succession of contracts.

无论来自于政府或商界,项目资金的重要特点是其建立在契约上,即不同的项目可以争取相同的项目资金,因此调研人员要取得独立,就必须得到连续的研究项目。

The resulting patchwork of laws, people on all sides of the issue say, complicates a nationwide picture already clouded by scientific and ethnical questions over whether and how to restrict cloning or to ban it altogether.

在克隆问题上各方人士认为,关于是否限制克隆、如何限制克隆或索性禁止克隆的科学及伦理问题,已经使全国性立法变得扑朔迷离。而如今各种东拼西凑的法律,只会使全国性立法形成步履维艰。

A law that goes into effect on Jan.1 allows computer users in the state to refuse unwanted solicitations en masse and sue spammers who violate their wishers for as much as $1 million.

1月1日,加州通过一条法律,使得计算机用户有权拒收垃圾邮件,并对邮件发送者提出诉讼,要求最高达一百万美元的赔偿。

走兽怎么叫

动物叫声

1、狮子(lion): roar, howl;

2、老虎(tiger): roar, howl;

3、豹子(panther): howl

4、大象(elephant): trumpet;

5、豺(jackal): howl

6、狼(wolf): howl

7、狗(dog): bark,yap,yelp,bay,howl,growl,snarl,whine

8、狐(fox): bark,yelp

9、猫(cat): mew,miaow,miau,meow,meou

10、鼠(mouse): squeak,cheep,peep

11、猪(pig): grunt, whick, aqueak

12、野猪(swine): grunt

13、公猪(boar): girn

14、熊(bear): bruzz, growl

15、无尾猿(ape): gibber,gueriet

16、猴(monkey): screech, gibber, chatter, snutter, jabber, howl

17、骆驼(camel): nuzz, grunt

18、鹿(deer): call, bell, bellow

19、牛(cattle): cow,bleat

20、公牛(bull): bellow,low

21、母牛(cow): low

22、小牛(calf):bleat

23、水牛(buffalo): boo

24、羊(sheep,goat): baa, bleat

25、马(horse): neigh,whinny,nicker

26、驴(ass,donkey): bray, hee-haw

27、兔子(rabbit): mumble

虫子声音

1、青蛙(frog): croak

2、蟾蜍(toad): shriek

3、蛇(snake, serpent): hiss

4、蜜蜂(bee): buzz,hum,bumble,drone

5、黄蜂(wasp): hum

6、蟋蟀(cricket): chirp(chirup)

7、甲虫(beetle): drone,boom

8、蚱蜢(grsshopper): chirp

9、蚊子(mosquito): hum,buzz,drone

10、苍蝇(fly): hum,buzz,drone

飞禽叫声

1、公鸡(cock): crow

2、母鸡(hen): cackle,cluck

3、小鸡(chicken): cheep

4、火鸡(turkey): gobble

5、鸭(duck): quack

6、鹅(goose): cackle,hiss,creak,gaggle

7、鸽子(dove,pigeon): coo,crood,croud,croodle,cur

8、鹌鹑(quail): curkle

9、鸠(stock-dove): murmur

10、斑鸠(turtle-dove): wail

11、天鹅(swan): chant,cry

12、乌鸦(crow,raven): caw,croak

13、白嘴鸦(rook): caw

14、鹧鸪(partrige): call

15、鹦鹉(parrot): prat,squawk

16、孔雀(peacock): tantle,scream

17、云雀(lark): sing

18、红雀(linnet): chirp

19、喜鹊(magpie): chatter,clatter

20、麻雀(sparrow): chirp

21、夜莺(nightingale): warble,pip,jug,jug-jug

22、画眉(mavis): guaver

23、布谷(cuckoo): cuckoo

24、鹤(stork): coniat

25、白鹤(crane): whoop

26、燕(swallow): chirp,twitter

27、海鸥(gull):mew

28、鹰(eagle): scream

各类物体的响声

1、金属磕碰声当啷clank,clang

2、形容金属的响声当当rattle

3、金属、瓷器连续撞击声丁零当啷jingle,jangle,cling-clang

4、鼓声、敲门声咚咚rub-a dub,rat-tat,rat-a-tat

5、脆响的(关门)声吧嗒clik

6、敲打木头声梆梆rat-tat,rat-at

7、重物落下声咕咚thud,splash,plump

8、东西倾倒声哗啦crash,clank

9、风吹动树枝叶声飒飒sough,rustle

10、树枝等折断声嘎巴crack,snap

11、不大的寒风声瑟瑟rustle

12、踩沙子、飞沙击物或风吹草木沙沙、飒飒rustle

13、飞机螺旋桨转动呼呼whirr

14、雨点敲击房顶噼里啪啦patter

15、水流动声拔拉splash,gurgle

16、物体受压嘎吱creak

17、溪水、泉水流动声潺潺murmur,babble,purl

18、液体、沸腾、水流涌出或大口喝水声咕嘟babble,gurgle

19、重物落地声扑通flop,thump,splash,pit-a-pat

20、笑声、水、气挤出声扑哧titter,snigger,fizz

21、雷声、爆炸声、机器声隆隆hum,rumble,roll

22、汽笛或喇叭声呜呜toot,hoot,zoom

23、油在锅里滋滋sizzle

24、鞭炮爆炸声噼啪pop

25、脚踏楼板声登登clump

26、断裂声喀嚓crack. snap

下面看看朱生豪先生如何处理的(译莎士比亚的小诗)

Song: Hark, Hark!歌:听啊!听!

Hark, Hark!听啊!听!

Bow-woo.汪!汪!

The watching dogs bark!犬在门前狂吠!

Bow-woo.汪!汪!

Hark, Hark! I hear听啊!听!我听见

The strain of strutting chanticlear伸颈的雄鸡

Cry,"Cock-a-doodle-doo.l"喔喔啼

拟声词的常见三种翻译处理方法:

一、译为汉语对应的拟声词,有的译为独词句,有的译为动词或名词的辅助成分。

1.Crack! The stick broke in two.

喀嚓!棒子断为两截。

2.Only the venliator in the cellar window kept up a cealess rattle.

只有地下室窗户上的鼓风机发出无休无止的呼呼声。

3.Round the corner of CroscentBay, between the pile-up masses of broken rock, a flock of sheep came pattering.

沿着新月海湾的地方,从一堆堆破碎的岩石堆中,一群羊叭嗒叭嗒地跑了过来。

二、有时可以将英文的拟声词译为汉语中较为抽象的“..........的叫,...........声”,有的则直叙其动作。

1.The cock in the yard crowed its first round.

院子里的雄鸡已经叫头遍了。

2. He felt as if he must shout and sing, he seemed to hear about him the rustle of unceasing and inmumberable wings.

他感到简直要大喊大唱,耳际仿佛传来无数翅膀的拍击声。

3. They splashed through the mire to the village.

他们一路踏着泥水向村子去。

三、为增加效果,即使英文未出现拟声词,翻译时添加拟声词。

1.The logs were burning briskly in the fire.

木柴在火中哔哔剥剥烧的正旺。

2.“Impartinent!” snorted Imalds.

伊梅尔达鼻子哼了声“没家教!”

3.Then a dog began to howl somewhere ina a farm house far down the road--a long, agonized wailing, as if from fear.

接着,路尽头一所农舍附近响起狗的汪汪声,那是一声长长的哀鸣,似乎是因恐惧而发出的惊恐之声。

梭罗描写沃尔登湖冬景的一句

I seldom opened my door in a winter evening without hearing it; Hoo hoo hoo, hooner hoo, sounded sonorously, and the first three syllables accented somewhat like how deardo; or sometimes hoo hoo only.

冬季傍晚,我一打开门常常听到“唿——唿——唿,唿——唿”的鸟叫声,声音哼悦耳,前三个音节听起来有点象英语的“你好哇!”有时便只是鸟叫而已。

口译中需要强记的词组

Give the floor to请…发言

It is a great pleasure for me to我很荣幸…

Relevant issues相关问题

Updated research research result最新的调查结果

Attach the importance to对…给予重视

Lead-edge technologies领先技术

Minister Counselor公使

Natural heritage自然遗产

Shared concern共同关心的问题

Well-deserved reputation良好的信誉

对…表示衷心的感谢express sincere gratitude to

请…讲话Let’ s welcome to give a speech

双边会议bilateral conference

以掌声对…表示的最热烈的欢迎propose the warmest applause to

主办单位sponsor

颁奖仪式the Award Ceremony

贺词greeting speech

隆重举行observe the grand opening of

请…颁奖Let’s invite to present the award

取得圆满成功achieve complete ceremony

全球庆典global celebration ceremony

宣布…结束declare the closing of

请全体起立,奏国歌Please rise for the national anthem.

Collective stewardship集体管理

Competitive job market充满竞争的就业市场

Financial institutions金融机构

Forward-looking进取

Gross National Product国民生产总值

Meet the challenges迎接挑战

Public authorities公共机构

Regulatory mechanism法规机制

The threshold of our transition into the new millenmum跨越新千年的门槛

UNCHS (United Nations Centre for Human Settlements)联合国人居中心

Urban residents城市居民

Well-serviced formal city服务齐全的高尚城市

把…列为重要内容place as the priority

不放松工作never neglect the work

节约用水water conservation

对…表示衷心祝贺extend our sincere congratulations on

节约用水先进城市model city of water conservation

使…取得预期效果attain the results expected

授予…光荣称号confer honorable awards on

为…而奋斗strive for

严重缺水城市a city of severe water shortage

有关单位units concerned

与…比有差距compared with ,there is still some way to go

预祝…圆满成功wish a complete success

开源与节流并重broaden sources of income &reduce expenditure

对外贸易港口seaport for foreign trade

国内生产总值National Gross Products

欢聚一堂merrily gather

活跃的经济带vigorous economic region

基础雄厚solid foundation

留下最美好的印象may you have a most pleasant impression

盛世the grand occasion

祝愿在停留愉快wish a pleasant stay

综合性商港comprehensive commercial seaport

春意盎然spring is very much in the air

forest coverage森林覆盖率

global warming全球变暖

principal element主要因素

toxic emission废气排放

迸发出心灵的火花ignite the sparks of understanding

建立合作桥梁build the bridge for cooperation

内容翔实substantial in content

能源大省major province of energy

日程紧凑tight in schedule

call upon号召

conservation benefits节水的好处

industrial reuse and recycling工业中水利用

pollution fines污染罚款

urban water conservation城市节水

water saving fixtures节水装置

地区经济regional economic

港口经营多元化diversification in port operation

责任和义务perform our duties and fulfill our obligations

地区行业盛会a well-known regional event of the industry

发起港initiating ports

break free冲破藩篱

civil society民间团体

ethnic lines种族

genuine partnership真正的合作伙伴

squatter settlements违章建筑区

without access to享受不到

畅所欲言open dialogues

计划经济的束缚the bounding of planning economy

紧迫问题pressing issues

科教兴省和走可持续发展的道路vitalize the province by science and technology and sustainable development

空前膨胀unprecedentedly inflated

控制增长势头curb the trend of steep rise

面临严峻挑战face severe challenges

清醒地看到acutely aware

生态恶化ecological deterioration

提高意识strengthen the awareness

相互尊重,求同存异,平等互利,优势互补,借鉴经验,拓展合作,立足当前,着眼未来respect each other, seek the common ground while putting aside difference, enjoy equality and mutual benefits, complement each other’s advantages, learn each other’s experience, expand the cooperation, stand from the present and look forward to the future

以此会议为契机take the opportunity of this seminar

滞后lag behind

转轨建制过程缓慢the tr4ansition of mechanism is slow

总结经验教训draw lessons from the past

community development oriented以发展社区为宗旨的

deserved winners当之无愧的获奖者

ethnic minorities少数民族

gainful employment有报酬的

gender issues性别问题

handicraft works手工艺品

income generation工薪阶层

in-depth knowledge深入了解

the handicapped残疾人

不求最大,但求最好seek the best instead of the largest

产业结构industrial structure

城乡一体化the unified design between the city and the countryside

短期行为short-term conduct

房地产开发real estate development

扶贫帮困help and support the poor

公共绿地public lawn

公用事业public utilities

会展中心convention center

基建规模infrastructure scale

精品意识consciousness for the best

精品住宅区model human settlements

企业效益enterprise revenue

文明乘车civil bus ride

希望工程Hope Project

以人为本human centered

主办城市the host city

综合治理comprehensively administer

economic recession经济萧条

press conference记者招待会

rough diamond钻坯

sophisticated machine先进机器

staggering growth强劲的增长

trade union业界

umbrella name统称

濒临停产边缘be close to production collapse

反省reflect on

回报期period of investment return

痛定思痛recall a painful experience

卧薪尝胆endure present hardships to revive

兴旺期blossom period

develop and flourish茁壮成长

expanding export earner不断扩展的出口创汇者

impose stringent rules定下严格规则

市场波动market fluctuation

协会章程association charter

总经营额total business revenue

end-user用人单位

entry-level学徒期

from square one从头开始

high-caliber高水平的

instill or reinforce灌输或强化

job specification工作性质

localization programs本土化项目

performance appraisal表现评估

不断调整和日趋完善的阶段the stage of constant adjustment and improvement

产学研一体化的办学机制the educational mechanism of combining learning with research and production

成人学历教育,高等教育自学考试continuing education and self-study examination of higher education

初露端倪reveal its importance for the first time

翻译导游tourist interpreter

复合型,应用型管理人才versatile and practical management talents

结构性调整structural adjustment

民俗风情customs and habits

相伴而生be accompanied by

学术领域academic sector

应势而生come into existence as the situation requires

在职培训part-time training

专业方向professional emphasis

资格考试qualification test

TOPICAL

The Economic Commission for Europe欧洲经济委员会

A world-wide reputation誉满全球

Conference center会议中心

The world Health Organization世界卫生组织

International civil servants国际事务公务员

International press center国际新闻中心

Works of art艺术品

International trading center国际贸易中心

Rich cultural blend丰富多彩的文化交融

Holiday resort旅游胜地

Natural reserves自然保护区

Feudal dynasty封建王朝

中国革命历史博物馆the Museum of the Chinese Revolution

一座历史丰碑a historical monument

快节奏的社会fast-tempo society

专题展览exhibitions on special subject

实地考察on-the-spot investigaion

经历了数千年的风吹雨打being beaten by elements for thousands of years

古典艺术精品classical art treasures

世界文化遗产World Cultural Heritage

紫禁城the Forbidden City

文物宝库a treasure house of cultural relics

私人收藏家personal collector

securities exchanges证券交易所

stock exchanges股票交易所

systematic market process有组织的买卖过程

major corporation大公司

New York Stock Exchange纽约证券交易所

Tax harmonization协调税收

Hot topic热门话题

European Union欧盟

Driving force推动力

Contemplate on the harmonization统一的期望

国际货币组织International Monetary Fund

国内需求domestic demand

经济全球化economic globalization

双边渠道bilateral channels

亚太经合组织Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

金融危机financial crisis

广泛关注arouse wide concern

国际社会international community

公正合理的国际经济新秩序a new and reasonable international economic order

从大局出发proceed from the whole situation

财政政策financial policy

共同繁荣common prosperity

贸易投资自由化trade and investment liberalization

日新月异progress with each passing day

知识经济knowledge economy

faulty members教职工

subscribes to订阅

journals and periodicals杂志期刊

recreations and athletic facilities娱乐体育设施

arts department文科系

applied science应用科学

recipients of Nobel Prize诺贝尔奖金获得者

intellectual and personal qualities文化和个人素质

living expenses生活费

sense of community团队意识

成人教育学院continuing education school

仿真实验室simulation laboratory

教育部Ministry of Education

土木工程civil engineering

全国重点大学national key university

信息技术information technology

函授生correspondence student

外国留学生international student

教育展览会Education Exhibition

组委会organizing committee

主要内容main component

热点话题much-talked-about topic

共同关心的信息mutually concerned information

fresh water resource洁水资源

over the last couple of decades在过去的二十年里

land available for farming适耕地

fresh water available可用清洁水

emerging economies新兴经济

global warming全球变暖

ecological crisis生态危机

path to prosperity通向繁荣之路

seize the opportunity抓住机遇

remarkable environmental progress引人注目的环境

垃圾处理garbage disposal

生活必需品the bare necessities of life

消费品consumer goods

消费习惯consuming habit

捕鱼量the volume of fishing

造纸业paper-making industry

木材储量timber reserves

森林覆盖面积forest-covering area

inward investment对内投资

entrepreneurship创业精神

pay tribute to表示敬意

subsidies and grants津贴和拨款

problem of terrorism恐怖主义问题

gave their lives to the highest calling将生命献给了最崇高的事业

target of terrorism恐怖主义的目标

intensified our effort加强力量

bring to justice使归案受审

国际条约international treaties

世界知识产权组织World Intellectual Property Organization

私营部门the private sector

知识产权intellectual property

总干事Director Geneor

在进入新的千年之际at the threshold of the new millennium

成员国member countries

纲领性文件programmatic document

基本人权fundamental human rights

殖民枷锁colonialist shackles

任重道远the burden is heavy and the road is long

internet phone industry网络电话业

vast potential for future development广阔的发展前景

telephone sound quality电话音质

instantaneous transmission即时传输

GPS(Global Positioning System)全球卫星定位系统

Relay station中继站

Intelligent traffic management systems智能交通管理系统

分子生物学Molecular biology

能源综合利用comprehensive utilization of energy

认识科学cognitive science

生产力productive force

推动力量driving force

相对论the theory of relativity

行为科学behavior science

知识科学knowledge economy

新兴产业rising economy

层出不穷emerge one after another

科教兴国战略the strategy of economic development through science-technology and education

可持续发展sustainable development

试点工程pilot program

严峻挑战serious challenges

运行机制operational mechanism

中国科学院Chinese Academy of Sciences

综合国力the overall national strength

磁悬浮铁路magnetic suspended railway

root causes根本原因

juvenile crime bill青少年犯罪

idle talk闲聊

easy access to轻易接近

zero tolerance绝不容忍

balanced budget预算平衡

step up to its responsibilities担负起责任

law enforcement professionals执法者

debit card提款卡

magnetic stripe磁条

parking meter停车计费表

personal identification number密码

pull double duty具备双重功能

electronic versions电子交易

chip-enhanced versions加强性芯片

be hot for the idea热衷于这个主意

遥控器remote controller

无孔不入all pervasive

增强性能strengthen the property

减少故障to reduce the breakdown

原动力motive power

高架铁路aerial train

汽车废气的排放discharge of automobile exhaust fumes

毗邻而居be adjacent to

state-of-the art最新型的,最优良的

three-dimensional三维的,立体的

ground-breaking开拓性的,独创的

organizing committee组委会

innovative approach创新方法

marketing partner市场合作伙伴

a giant leap into the future走向未来的一次飞跃

cash for votes用钱拉选票

bribery scandal贿赂丑闻

草地网球lawn tennis

发球区service court

处于执牛耳的地位occupy a leading position

体育道德精神sportsmanship

以全体运动员的名义in the name of all the athletes

借助不正当的手段resort to unjust means

蚂蚁和蚱蜢

原文:

On a cold, frosty day an ant was dragging out some of the corn which he had laid up in the summertime, to dry it .A grasshopper, half perished with hunger, besought the ant to give him a morsel of to preserve his life. "What were you doing, "said the ant, "this last summer ?""Oh," said the grasshopper,"I was not idle .I kept singing all the summer long ."said the ant, laughing and shutting up his granary ."Since you could sing all summer, you may dance all winter."

Winter finds out what summer lays by.

译文:

在寒冷,结霜的天气,一只蚂蚁拖曳出一些夏天储存起来的玉米,想晾干。一只蚱蜢,饿的要死,恳求蚂蚁给他一些食物让他保住性命。蚂蚁说:"那你整个夏天在干什么?"蚱蜢说:"我并不闲着,我整个夏天都在歌唱。"蚂蚁笑着关闭了他的谷仓,说:"你可以在整个夏天歌唱,那你也可能整个冬天都跳舞。"

冬天都找出夏天在干什么?

词汇:

laid up储存

a morsel of一些,些许

granary谷仓

狐狸和乌鸦

原文:

A crow had snatched a goodly piece of cheese out of a window, and flew with it into a high tree, intent on enjoying her prize. A fox spied the dainty morsel, and thus he planned his approaches, "Oh, crow, "said he, "how beautiful are thy wings ! how bright thine eye! How graceful thy neck! Thy breast is the breast of an eagle ! thy claws-I beg pardon-thy talons, are a match for all the beasts for the field, oh, that such a bird should be dumb, and want only a voice."the crow, pleased with the flattery, and chuckling to think how she would surprise the fox with her caw, opened her mouth. Down dropped the cheese! Snapping it up, the fox observed, as he walked away, that whatever he had remarked of her beauty, he had said nothing yet of her brains.

Men seldom flatter without some private end in view, and they who listen to such music may expect to have to pay the piper.

译文:

一只乌鸦从一个窗户里叼出了一快相当大的干酪,飞上了一棵高数,一心想享享口福,吃掉她夺来的这快东西,一只狐狸发现了这块美味的食物,就计划去接近她,"哦,乌鸦"他说,"你的翅膀多么漂亮啊!你的眼睛多么明亮啊,你的脖子多么娇美!你的胸脯和鹰一样!你的爪子,请原谅我,你的铁爪足以和所有的野兽对抗,哦,多么可惜,这样一只鸟竟是一只哑巴,只缺少一副喉咙了!"乌鸦听了这甜言蜜语,心理很高兴,他得意地心里想,如果我哇哇地叫起来将使狐狸感到多么惊奇,于是他就张开了嘴。干酪拍地掉下去了!狐狸叼起干酪,一边走开,一边批评地说,不论他怎么吹嘘她的美貌,可是他还没谈论他的智慧。

谄媚人的人很少是没有自私打算的,而倾听这种音乐的人则势必要出钱。

词汇:

snatched抢夺

a goodly piece of相当大一块

spied侦察出,发现

dainty morsel好吃的东西

thy你的(古语)

thine你的(古语)

a match for ……的对手

flattery奉承

chuckling暗自得意

Snapping it up猛地咬住

in view企望

to pay the piper负担费用,承担代价

虚荣的八哥

原文:

A jackdaw, as vain and conceited as jackdaw could be, picked up the feathers which some peacocks had shed, stuck them amongst his own, and despising his old companions, introduced himself with the greatest assurance into a flock of those beautiful birds .They, instantly detecting the intruder, stripped him of his borrowed plumes, and falling upon him with their beaks sent him about his business .The unlucky jackdaw, sorely punished and deeply sorrowing, betook himself to his former companions, and would have flocked with them again as if nothing had happened .But they, recollecting what airs he had given himself, drummed him out of their society, while one of those whom he had so lately despised, read him this lecture:"Had you been contented with what nature made you, you would have escaped the chastisement of you r betters and also the contempt of you r equals。”

译文:

一只自负到极点的八哥鸟,捡起了一些孔雀脱落下来的羽毛,插在自己的羽毛中,于是就看不起自己的老伙伴了,满怀信心地走到了那些美丽的鸟群中。他们立刻发觉了这个闯进来的家伙,拔掉了他身上捡来的羽毛,并且用嘴啄他,把他赶了出去,不幸的八哥受到了严重的惩罚,感到非常难过,于是又去投奔自己的老伙伴,满想若无其事地又和他们混在一起,但是他们想起了过去他那副骄傲自大的神气就把他从队伍中轰了出来,不久以前曾受过他轻视的一个伙伴教训他说:"如果你过去满足于你自己的天生模样,你就不会受到比你美的人的惩罚,也不会受到跟你相同的人的鄙视了。"

词汇:

vain虚荣的,徒劳的

jackdaw八哥,寒鸦

peacock孔雀

with the greatest assurance满怀信心地

falling upon攻击

sent him about his business把他赶出去

drummed...out逐出

read him this lecture教训他

chastisement惩罚

狐狸和山羊

原文:

A fox had fallen into a well, and had been casting about for a long time how he should get out again, when at length a goat came to the place, and wanting to drink, asked Reynard whether the water was good, and of there was plenty of it .The fox, dissembling the real danger of his case, replied :"come down, my friend, the water is so good that I can not drink enough of it, and so aboundant that it can not be exhausted ."Upon this the goat without any more ado leaped in, when the fox, taking advantage of his friend's horns, as nimbly leaped out, and coolly remarked to the poor deluded goat :"if you had half as much brains as you have beard, you would have looked before you leaped."

译文:

一只狐狸掉在一口井里,转了很久怎样再跳上去,最后一只山羊来到这里,他正想喝水,便问狐狸这水好不好,还多不多,狐狸掩饰起他的真实危险处境,回答说:"下来吧,我的朋友,这水好得使我喝不够,而且多的用不完。"于是山羊立刻跳了井里,狐狸踩着他朋友的角,敏捷地跳了上去,并且冷淡地对受了骗的可怜的山羊说:"如果你的脑子有你胡子一半多,你就会先思而后行了。"

词汇:

casting about来回走,想方设法

at length最后

Reynard狐狸的通称

without any more ado不费吹灰之力

taking advantage of利用

look before you leap三思而后行

狮子和牛

原文:

Three bulls fed in a field together in the greatest peace and amity .A lion had long watched them in the hope of making prize of them, but found that there was little chance for him so long as they kept all together .He therefore began secretly to spread evil and slanderous reports of one against the other ,till he had formented a jealousy and distrust amongst them . No sooner did the lion see that they avoided one another ,and fed each by himself apart ,than he fell upon them ,and so made an easy prey of them all.

The quarrels of friends are the opportunities of foes.

译文:

有三头牛,他们极其友好和睦地在一起在野外吃草,一头狮子窥视了很久,想逮住他们,但是觉得只要他们聚在一起,就得不到机会。因此他开始暗地里散布流言蜚语,说这一个跟另一个作对,直到他们之间制造了妒忌和不信任。狮子一看到他们各奔东西、分头吃草的时候,就马上向他们一个一个的进攻了。这样他就轻而易举地把他们全吃光了。

朋友间的不知,就是敌人进攻的机会。

词汇:

making prize of逮住

fell upon them向他们攻击

豹和狐狸

原文:

A Leopard and a fox had a contest which was the finer creature of the two ,the leopard put forward the beauty of its numberless spots ,but the fox replied: "It is better to have a versatile mind than a variegated body.

译文:

一只豹和一只狐狸在争论谁好谁不好,豹提出他有数不尽的美丽斑点,而狐狸回答说:"有多方面的智力比有多种颜色的身体强。

词汇:

Leopard猎豹

versatile多方面的

variegated多彩的

熊与狐狸

原文:

A bear used to boast of his excessive love for man.saying that he never worried or mauled him when dead .The fox observed .with a smile :"I should have thought more of profession if you never eaat him alive ."

Better save a man from dying than slalve him when dead.

译文:

一只熊总喜欢夸耀自己很爱人,他说人死了之后,他从来不咬他或伤害他,狐狸笑着说:"假如你从来不吃活人的话,我就会更重视你所说的话了。"

拯救一个人使他不死,胜过在他死后说些安慰的话。

青蛙和牛

原文:

An ox, grazing in a swampy meadow, chanced to set his foot among a parcel of young frogs, and crushed nearly the whole brood to death .One that escaped ran off to his mother with the dreadful news."and ,oh ,mother !"said he ,"it was a beast -such a big four footed beast!-that did it .""Big?" quoth the old frog , "How big? Was it as big" -- and she puffed herself out to a great degree-"as big as this ?""oh!"said the little one ,"a great deal bigger than that .""well, was it so big ?"and she swelled herself out yet mere ."Indeed ,mother ,but it was ,and of you were to burst yourself you would never reach half its size."provoked at such a disparagement of her powers, the old frog made one more trial ,and burst herself indeed.

So men are ruined by attempting greatness to which they have no claim.

译文:

一头牛在一快泥泞的草地上吃草,偶然把脚踏在一堆小青蛙当中,几乎把所有的幼蛙踩死。脱险的一个带着这可怕的消息跑到他母亲那里去了。"啊,母亲!"他说"是一只野兽-那样一只有四只脚的大野兽-踩的。""大吗?"老青蛙说。"多大?"她股足了气把自己胀得大大的说:"他像这样的吗?""啊!"小青蛙说,"比那大多了。""哦,有这么大吗?"她鼓着气胀地更大了。"真的,母亲,但确实如此,即使你胀破了自己,也不够他一半大。"老青蛙看到自己的力气受到轻视很是激怒,于是又鼓了一下气,果然这次胀破了自己。

妄自尊大的人必将自取灭亡的。

词汇:

grazing吃草

a parcel of一群

brood一窝

quoth说(古代)

puffed herself out鼓气把自己吹大

disparagement轻视

狼与鹤

原文:

A Wolf had got a bone stuck in his throat and in the greatest agony ran up and down, beseeching every animal he met to relieve him, at the same time hinting at a very handsome reward to the successful operator. A Crane, moved by his entreaties and promises, ventured her long neck down the Wolf's throat, and drew out the bone. She then modestly for the promised reward. To which the Wolf, grinning and showing his teeth, replied with seeming indignation: "Ungreateful creature! to ask for any other reward than that you have put you head into a wolf's jaws and brought it safe again!"

Those who are charitable only in the hope of a return must not be surprised if in their dealings with evil men, they meet with more jeers than thanks.

词汇:

in the great agony极其痛苦

with seeming indignation充满怒气

hinting at暗示

老鬣狗

原文:

A Hound, who had been excellent one in his time, and had done good service to his master in the field, at length become worn out with the weight of years and trouble. One day, when hunting the wild boar, he seized the creature by the ear, but his teeth giving way, he was forced to let go his hold, and the boar escaped. Upon this the huntsman, coming up, severely rate him. But the feeble Dog replied: "Spare your old servant! it was the power not not the will that failed me. Remember rather what I was, than abuse me for what I am.

词汇:

in his time想当年

at length后来,最后

worn out累垮了

the weight of years and trouble长年劳累

seized ... by the ear咬住...的耳朵

give way让步

鹅与鹤

原文:

Some Geese and some Cranes fed together in the same field. One day the sportsmen came suddenly down upon them. The Cranes being light of body, flew off in a moment; but the geese, weighted down by their fat, were all taken.

In civil commotions, they fare best who have least to fetter them.

词汇:

geese鹅(复数)

crane鹤

come suddenly down upon突然袭击

weighted down过重而坠

have least to fetter>最少牵挂

母狮子

原文:

There was a great stir made among all the Beasts, which could boast of largest family. So they came to the Lioness. "And how many," said , "do you have at a birth?" "One," said she, grimly, "but that one is a lion."

Quality comes before quantity.

译文:

一场大比拼在所有野兽中展开了,看看谁敢夸耀自己的家族最大。众野兽来到母狮子跟前,问道:“你一胎能生产几个?”“一个”,狮子凶横地说,“但那是一头狮子”。

质量重于数量。

词汇:

stir轰动,骚动

boast of自夸

at a birth一胎

grimly冷酷地,可怕地

鹰和箭

原文:

A Bowman took aim at an Eagle and hit him in the heart. As the Eagle turned his head in the agonies of death, he saw that the Arrow was winged with his own feathers. "How much sharper," said he, "are the wounds made by weapons which we ourselves have supplied!"

词汇:

bowman弓箭手

took aim at瞄准

in the agonies of death疼得死去活来

was winged配箭翎

sharper(疼痛)更剧烈

大山分娩

原文:

In days of yore, a mighty runmbling was heard in a mountain. It was said to be in labor, and multitudes flocked together, from far and near, to see what it would produce. After long expectation and many wise conjectures from the by-standers -- out popped a Mouse!

The story applies those magnificent promises end in a paltry performance.

译文:

古时候,在一座山里发出了一阵隆隆巨响,据说这是大山要临产了。人群从四面八方聚集起来,观看大山会生出什么后代。大家企盼了许久,并且作了许多聪明的推测,结果从那里跳出一只老鼠。

这个故事说的是,雷声大,雨点小。

词汇:

In days of yore古时候

in labor临产

multitudes flocked together人群聚集

by-standers旁观者

out popped跳出

paltry微不足道的

树和斧子

原文:

A Woodman came into a forest to ask the Trees to give him a handle for Ax. It seemed so modest a request that the principal tree at once agreed to it, and it was settled among them that the plain, homely Ash should furnish what was wanted. No sooner had the Woodman fitted the staff to his purpose ,than he began laying about him on all side. felling the whole matter too late, whispered to the Cedar: "the first concession has lost all ;if we has not a sacrificed our humble neighbor, we might have yet stood for ages ourselves."

译文:

有一个樵夫来到森林里,要求树给他一跟斧柄,看来他的请求非常谦虚,立刻得到了树的首领的同意。他们决定由平凡而朴素的白杨树来提供所需要的东西。樵夫刚按好斧柄,就开始到处乱砍,森林里最高的树都砍倒了,树林现在察觉大势已去,就小声对衫树说:"第一次的让步已失去了一切。如果我们不牺牲我们的小小的邻居,我们自己还可以活无数年呢。"

词汇:

the principal tree领头树

was settled among them大家商定

no sooner...than...一……就……

laying about him向他四周乱砍

might have yet stood for ages也许还能活几百年

旅行者和熊

原文:

Two friends were traveling on the same road together, when they met with a bear .The one, in great fear, without a thought of his companion, climbed up into a tree, and hid himself .The other, seeing that he had on chance single-handed against the bear, had nothing left but to throw himself on the ground and feign to be dead, for he had heard that the bear will never touch a dead body .A s he thus lay, the bear came up to his head, muzzling and snuffing at his nose, and ears, and heart, but the immovably held his breath, and the beast, supposing him to be dead, walked away .When the bear was fairly out of sight, his companion came down out of the tree, and asked what it was that the bear whispered to him-"for"says he, "I observed he put his mouth very close to your ear . ""why,"replies the other, "it was no great secret, he only bid me have a care how I kept company with those who, when they get into a difficulty, leave their friends in a lurch."

词汇:

single-handed独自一人,孤立无援

lurch危难

一捆木柴

原文:

A Husbandman who had a quarrelsome family ,after having tried in vain to reconcile them by words ,thought he might more readily prevail by an example .So he called his sons and bid them lay a bundle of sticks before him .Then ,having tied them into a fagot, he told the lads ,one after the other ,to take it up and break it .They all tied ,but tried in vain .Then untying the fagot ,he gave them the sticks to break one by one .This they did with the greatest ease .Then said the father:"Thus you ,my sons ,as long as you remain united ,are a match for all you enemies ;but differ and separate ,and you are undone."

Union is strength.

译文:

一个农夫,家庭不和睦,用言语劝告大家和好,总是无效,最后他想,用实际例子可能容易说服他们。于是他把儿子都叫来,吩咐他们抱一捆火柴放在他的面前。他把火柴捆成一捆,接着叫这些孩子挨次拿起来折断它,一个个都试过了,但都没有折断,接着他解了捆,一根一根地给他们折,他们都轻而易举地折断了。这时父亲说:"孩子们,只要我们团结一致,你们就能对付一切敌人;但是如果意见不合,各自东西,那么你们一定要失败。"

团结就是力量。

词汇:

Husbandman农夫

fagot一捆

a match for ……的对手

守财奴

原文:

A Miser, to make sure of his property, sold all that he had had converted it into a great lump of gold, which he hid in a hole in the ground, and went continually to visit and inspect it. This roused the curiosity of one of his workmen, who, suspecting that there was a treasure, when his master's back was turned went to the spot and stole it away. When the Miser returned and found the place empty, he wept and tore his hair. But a neighbor who saw him in this extravagant grief, and learned the cause of it, said: "Fret thyself no longer, but take a stone and put it in the same place, and think that it is your lump of gold; for, as you never meant to use it, the one will do you as much gold as the other."

The worth of money is not in its possession, but in its use.

译文:

一个守财奴,为了确保他的财产,卖掉所有家当换成了一大块金子,埋在一个地洞里,并且不时地去查看,这引起了手下一个雇工的好奇。雇工猜测那里肯定有宝贝,趁主人离开之际,他来到埋藏地点,把金子偷走了。当守财奴回来发现金子不翼而飞,便痛哭流涕,乱撮头发。一个邻人见状问明原由后说“你也别太痛苦了,拿一块石头再埋在原地,就当是那块金子好了,因为既然你永远不想用它,那么两者不是一回事吗”。

金钱的价值不在于拥有,而在于使用。

词汇:

extravagant过分的

thyself = yourself

人与赛特

原文:

A Man and a Satyr having struck up an acquaintance, sat down together to eat. The day being wintry and cold, the Man put his fingers to his mouse and blew opon them. "What's that for, my friend?" asked the Satyr. " My hands are so cold," said the Man, "I do it to warm them." In a little while some hot food was placed before them, and the Man, raising the dish to his mouse, again blew opon it. "And what's the meaning of that, now?" said the Satyr. "Oh," replied the Man, "my porridge is so hot, I do it to cool it." "Nay, then," said the Satyr, "from this moment I renounce your friendship, for I will have nothing to do with one who blows hot and cold with the same mouse."

译文:

一个人与赛特偶然相识,坐在一起吃东西。正值冬季,天气很冷,那人把手放在嘴边哈气。赛特问道“我的朋友,那是干吗?”这人说“我的手太冷了,这是为了取暖”。过了一会儿,热腾腾的食物端上来了,那人把碟子举到嘴边又吹了起来,赛特问“这又是干吗?”,那人说“哦,我的粥太烫了,我把他吹凉些”。赛特说“从现在起,我要与你绝交,因为我不想和一个反复无常的人做朋友”。

词汇:

atyr赛特(希腊神话中半人半羊的神)

strike up an acquaintance偶然成为朋友

porridge粥renounce拒绝,放弃

Sources:

1.《中式英语》戴丹妮主编

2.《翻译的技巧》钱歌川编著

3.《汉英词语翻译漫话》陈忠诚著

4.《现代英语用法词典》张道真编5.《汉译英一语多说300例》钱冠连编6.《英语惯用法大词典》王福祯徐达山主编

7.《英语常见问题解答大词典》赵振才编著

8.《实用英语正误词典》本词典编写组编

9. Dictionary of American Slang ---Compiled and Edited by Harold Wentworth and Stuart Berg Flexner

01.有他这颗扫帚星,什么事情都办不成。

[误] With a comet like him, nothing can be accomplished. [正] With a jinx like him, nothing can be accomplished.

注:“扫帚星”是中国人对“慧星”(comet)的俗称,因其后面象拖着的一条像扫帚一样的长尾巴而得名。在中国古代,“扫帚星”被认为是灾难的预兆,并被用来比喻不吉利的人或事;祸根:(person or thing that is thought to bring)bad luck(to sb/sth);curse。英语的comet虽然没有这层含义,但却有一个对应的说法,即jinx。例:There‘s a jinx on/Someone‘s put a jinx on this car: it‘s always giving me trouble. “这辆汽车上有什么妨人的东西,总给我找麻烦”。

02.萝卜青菜,各有所爱。

[误] Some prefer radish but others prefer cabbage. [正] Tastes differ.

注:Tastes differ/vary是句英语谚语,除此以外,原句还可翻译成No dish suits all tastes或You can never make everyone happy等。《新概念英语》第三册第23课的标题是:One man‘s meat is another man‘s poison,表达的很生动。总之,应采取意译。

03.他一向嘴硬,从不认错。[误] He has always got a hard mouth and never admit a fault. [正] He never says uncle.

注:say (cry) uncle: to give up or in; to surrender; to admit defeat. Mainly used by boys, as when fighting。主要是男孩们打架时的用语,当一方想制服另一方时,就用命令的口气说:“Say uncle!”这时,有的孩子为了表示不服输,就是不说。后来,say uncle就成了“服输”的代名词,而not say uncle就相当于“嘴硬”了。

04.老师很喜欢这个嘴甜的小姑娘。

[误] The teacher likes this sweet-mouthed little girl very much.

[正] The teacher likes this honey-lipped little girl very much.

注:中国人喜欢说“嘴甜”,但honey-lipped更符合英美人的语言习惯。

05.同学们都很讨厌他,因为他经常拍老师的马屁。

[误] The student all dislike him because he often pats the teacher‘s ass.

[正] The students all dislike him because he often licks the teacher‘s boots.

注:以前在欧洲,臣民见到国王与王后往往要葡匐到在,亲吻他们的靴子。后来,人们将lick the boots引申为“为了某种目的而讨好某人”,它与汉语的“拍马屁”含义一样。在美国英语中,“拍马屁”还有另一种说法,即polish the apple,它典出以前的学生用擦亮的苹果来讨好老师。

06.你听说了吗?迈克把他的女朋友给甩了。

[误] Have you ever heard that Mike broke up with his girlfriend.

[正] Have you ever heard that Mike dumped his girlfriend.

注:break up with sb.虽然表示“与某人分手了”,但并没说明是谁先提出来的。而dump的原意指“倾倒垃圾”,用在这里则表示像倒垃圾一样地甩掉。

07.我们要把祖国建设成为社会主义的现代化强国。

[误] We will build our motherland into a socialist modern powerful country.

[正] We will build our motherland into a modern powerful socialist country.

注:形容词作为修饰语在汉语和英语中都很常用,但使用的先后次序却有所不同。在英语中我们一般遵循“靠近原则”,即越能说明本质属性的修饰词越靠近它所修饰的名词,当从这一点看不出区别时,就靠词的长短来决定,短的在前,长的在后。原文中最能说明“国家”本质的定语是“社会主义的”,所以socialist要最靠近它所修饰的中心词。

08.我想要一点白酒。[误] I‘d like a little bit of white wine. [正] I‘d like a little bit of liquor.

注:汉语的“酒”可指任何酒,包括白酒、葡萄酒、啤酒,甚至米酒;但英语中则要分别用liquor,wine,beer及rice wine表示。所以要注意,英语的wine与汉语的“酒”是有区别的,它仅指点葡萄酒。而且red wine是红葡萄酒,white wine是白葡萄酒。

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09.中华人民共和国主席

[误] Chairman of the People‘s Republic of China [正] President of the People‘s Republic of China

注:以前,我们一直将“主席”翻译为chairman,例如:great leader Chairman Mao(伟大领袖毛主席)。其实“主席”与chairman并不等义,chairman在英语中通常指会议或某一具体组织的负责人,它的权力和重要性不及中文的“主席”。这就是为什么1983年,在我国《宪法》的英译单行本中开始使用President一词,并沿用至今。另外,国内仍有不少词典把“班/级长(学校的)”译为“class monitor”,这是“四人帮”时代的产物,那时的“班长”是专司监管学生的,所以译作“monitor”。而“班长”的正确译文应该是“class president”。

10.转战南北[误] fight south and north [正] fight north and south

注:在地理方位的表达习惯上,中英文有一定的区别。中国人习惯于先“东西”后“南北”,而且在涉及“南北”时,习惯于先说“南”,再说“北”,如:“南征北战”、“南来北往”等。而英美人与此正好相反,如“江苏在中国的东南部”英文是Jiangsu is in the south-east of China,而“新疆在中国的西北部”应译为Xinjiang is in the north-west of China。

11.人都是这山望着那山高,对自己的现状没有满意的时候。

[误] Almost all people think that the other mountain is higher than the one he‘s standing on. They never feel saisfied with what they‘ve already got.

[正] Almost all people think that the grass is greener on the other hill. They never feel saisfied with what they‘ve already got.

注:“这山望着那山高”是指人不满足于现状的心理,它在英语中已经有了现成的说法,即the grass is greener on the other hill(他山的草更绿),因此我们借用即可,这样既方便又更有利于与西方人沟通。

12.北京申奥成功的消息令我们热血沸腾。

[误] Beijing‘s winning the bid for the Olympics makes our blood boil.

[正] Beijing‘s winning the bid for the Olympics makes us excited.

注:make one‘s blood boil是指“激怒某人”,而非“使人激动”。英语中“使人激动”的说法除了make one excited,还有较为口语化的make one‘s spine tingle。

13.别听他们胡说八道,根本就没那回事。

[误] Don‘t listen to their babbling. Nothing of the sort.

[正] Don‘t be fooled by their babbling. Nothing of the sort.

注:原文中的“听”不能用listen to来表示,因为listen to指“听”的动作,而原文中的“别听”不是不让他“听”,而是劝告他“不要听信”,因此,用not be fooled by才更达意。

14.我们这儿的人都觉得他有婚外恋。

[误] People around here all feel that he has affairs outside his own marriage.

[正] People around here all feel that he is leading a double life.

注:affair本身就指“私通”或“暧昧关系”,当然是“婚外”的事,所以outside one‘s own marriage无疑是多此一举了。英语中“有婚外恋”的地道说法应该是lead a double life。

15.别看别人不把她当回事,在家里她可是父亲的掌上明珠。

[误] Although other people never take her seriously, she is the pearl on her father‘s hand at home.

[正] Although other people never take her seriously, she is the apple of her father‘s eye at home.

注:中英文常用不同的喻体表明相同的喻义,“掌上明珠”与the apple of one‘s eye就是一个很好的例子。这种情况我们一般应尊重各国文化和习俗,翻译时取目的语的固定说法,而不必直译,这有助于将意思更有效地传达给读者。the apple of one‘s eye源自圣经《旧约》,当时人们用apple指人的瞳孔。尽管瞳孔现在已经用pupil来表示,不再是apple了,但这一用法却延续了下来。

16.都十点钟了。起床了,懒虫!

[误] It‘s ten o‘clock. Get up, lazy worm! [正] It‘s ten o‘clock. Get up, lazy bones!

注:“懒虫”并非真是一条虫,只不过被用来形容人很懒惰罢了。英语里与之对应的说法是lazy bones(懒骨头)。注意,这里的bone应以复数形式出现,也许是因为不会只有一根骨头懒吧!

17.我唯一的资本就是勤奋。[误] My only capital is diligence. [正] My only means to success is diligence.

注:原文的“资本”是借喻,实际指“可以依靠并取得成功的手段”。而英语的capital指money used to produce more wealth or for starting a business,并没有中文那样的引申意思。所以,这里的“资本”不能与capital画等号。也有人用advantage来翻译“资本”,虽然不尽意,但至少可以让读者理解。

18.这家商店开辟了休息处,受到顾客的称赞。

[误] This department store has set up a resting-place, much to the customers‘ appreciation.

[正] This department store has set up a lounge, much to the customers‘ appreciation.

注:英语的resting-place虽然有“休息处”的意思,但更经常的是用来指“坟墓”,即“最后安息之处”。因此,把公共场所的“休息处”译为resting-place不很合适。也有人将它译为rest-room,但那更不妥当,因为英语中的rest-room是“厕所”的委婉说法,而“休息处”不是这个意思。

19.大家都怀疑汤姆是个间谍。

[误] Everyone doubts that Tom is a spy. [正] Everyone suspects that Tom is a spy.

注:doubt作“怀疑”讲,是“不相信”的意思;而suspect作“怀疑”讲,是指“对...有所察觉”。第一句译文犯了两个错误:首先,doubt不能接that从句,只有not doubt that和doubt if/whether;其次,它所表达的意思是“大家对汤姆是间谍这件事表示怀疑”,即“大家不相信汤姆是间谍”,与原文的意思恰好相反。

20.我们俩关系最好,他经常来我这儿蹲饭吃。

[误] We are best friends. He always comes here to have meals for free.

[正] We are best friends. He always comes here to bum meals off me.

注:第一句只表明“他常到我这儿来白吃白喝”,但朋友这间那种亲密关系没有体现出来。而bum sth. off sb.指向非常熟的朋友要一些不起眼的小东西,而朋友也不会介意还不还。

21.这个教授教得很烂。[误] The professor teaches badly. [正] The professor is so terrible.

注:有人认为第二句的意思是“这个教授很可怕”,其实不然。英语中terible意思很灵活,例如:feel terrible指身体“不舒服”;The food is terrible则是说食物“难吃极了”。而第一句纯属中文式的表达。

22.我希望你不要拖我的后腿。[误] I hope that you won‘t pull my leg. [正] I hope that you won‘t hold me back.

注:pull one‘s leg是“愚弄某人,开某人的玩笑”的意思,相当于make fun of sb.。英语中与“拖后腿”相对应的表达是hold sb. back或be a drag on sb.等。

23.学校里,那些长得人高马大的家伙常来找我的麻烦。

[误] At school, those big and strong guys always come to find my trouble.

[正] At school, those big and strong guys always come to pick on me.

注:find my trouble是“发现我的难处”的意思,而英语中“找某人的麻烦”用短语pick on sb.它不仅表示“挑剔某人、找某人的碴”,而且还包含tease(取笑、戏弄)或bully(威胁、欺侮)的意思。

24.原来如此。一经你解释我就明白了。

[误] So it is. I understand soon after your explanation. [正] So that‘s how it is. I understand soon after your explanation.

注:So it is的意思是“的确如此”,它是用来表示对对方观点的赞同的。例如:A: It is a fine day today! B: So it is.

而在表达恍然大悟时,英文要用So that‘s how it is或So that explains it,或更简单地道的说法Oh, I see.

25.先生,您是不是迷路了?

[误] Hello, monsieur, get lost?

[正] Hello, monsieur, got lost?

注:这两句译文表面上看只是时态上存在差异,其实它们的含义也截然不同。get lost是俚语:“走开,别捣乱”的意思,got lost才是“迷路”。难怪当你友好地问外宾"Get lost?"时,他并不领情呢!

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(1) get lost!: go away

"I wish he‘d get lost and stop bothering me. I don‘t want to talk to him!" ---Dennis Oliver‘s Idioms:

http://www.eslcafe.com/idioms/id-g.html

(2) Get lost! INFORMAL

used to tell someone forcefully and quite rudely to go away: Tell him to get lost!

(from Cambridge Advanced Learner‘s Dictionary)

http://dictionary.cambridge.org/def...=CALD&key=47316

(3)《英汉大词典》p.1055:We got lost in the woods.我们在森林中迷路了。

(4)张道真《现代英语用法词典》p.820-821:He lost his bearing(迷失方向)in the strange city.

(5)在...中迷路,迷失在...We were lost in the forest. We are lost in the woods.

* lost one‘e way迷路She had lost her way. Don‘t lost your way in the storm.

(6)《汉英大词典》上海交大版;金山词霸2005:

均收录了get lost为“迷路”;而“金山词霸2005”把“get lost”和“got lost”均列为“迷路”。但都没有例句。

有关迷路的常见说法:

1) to get lost(常用)I wouldn‘t have gotten lost, if I had asked for directions.要是我问过路,就不至于迷路了。

2) to lost one‘s way(正式)The child had lost his way.那个小孩迷路了。

3) to take the wrong road(不常用)Finally we found ourselves having taken the wrong road.

最后,我们发觉我们迷路了。

4) to go the wrong way(常用)I am we are going the wrong way.恐怕我们走错路了。

5) so lose one‘s bearings(正式)

One might lose his bearings in an unfamiliar place.一个人在不熟悉的地方最容易迷路。

6) can‘t find one‘s way(常用)

They went on in the desert until at last they couldn‘t find their way.他们在沙漠里继续走,直到他们最后迷了路。

7) to stray(正式)They strayed in the woods.他们在森林中迷路了。

(to go astray:走入迷途,走上歧途)

Today I came across get lost in The Invisible Man ---H. G. Wells:

"I‘m not trying to run away, I swear," protested Marvel tearfully. "I don‘t know these roads and I don‘t want to get lost."

26.我没料到这个无耻的女人居然同她好友的丈夫调情。

[误] I had not expected that this shameful woman should flirt with her best friend‘s husband.

[正] I had not expected that this shameless woman should flirt with her best friend‘s husband.

注:shameful通常指某事物是“可耻的,丢脸的”,而shameless表示having or showing no feeling of shame; immodest or impudent,它一般用来指人“不知羞耻的,不要脸的”或“伤风败俗的”。原文也可译为:It‘s shameful that the woman should flirt with her best friend‘s husband.

27.东施效颦。

[误] Doingshi imitates Xishi.

[正] The ugly imitates the beautiful in such a distorted way that the ugliness of the ugly becomes worse.

注:把原文按照字面意思直译过来,恐怕只有中国人能够理解。要想让外国人明白这个中国成语,就要对译文进行解释性加工了。同样,“情人眼里出西施”不是Xishi is in the eye of the beholder,而是Beauty is in the eye of the beholder。

28.你不好好学习,还想去牛津上大学。这可真是个不切实际的幻想哟!

[误] You don‘t study hard, yet you want to go to Oxford. What an impractical illusion!

[正] You don‘t study hard, yet you want to go to Oxford. What an illusion!

注:汉语中的修饰语往往用的很多,目的在于加强语气,但这种表达习惯在翻译时必须进行处理。illusion本身就有impractical的含义,而英语中在表意已经很明确的情况下是无需重复的。

29.想让他答应这样的要求恐怕不大可能。

[误] I‘m it is impossible for him to agree to such a request.

[正] I‘m afreaid it is unlikely for him to agree to such a request.

注:impossible表示“完全不可能”,所以与原文有出入。在英语中,probable表示的可能性最大,其次是possible,再次是likely。而常用的句式为it is probable/possible/likely for sb. to do sth.,或sb. be likely to do sth.。

30.一群蚂蚁[误] a group of ants [正] a colony of ants

注:表示群体时,group通常指人或物,而colony才指生物群体。

The Chinglish Files have been featured in the U.K. newspaper "The Telegraph" and on the BBC radio program "The World Today."

Chinglish: The humorous version of English that appears (often in instructions for assembling or using products) after a translation from the original Chinese (or any other language) fails to come across in "normal" English.

The term Chinglish is a fusion of the "Chin" from Chinese and the "glish" from English. Chinglish is not a racist or bigoted term and should not be taken as such. If anything, The Chinglish Files are a way of poking fun at how difficult our flawed English language can be to translate at times. It is not intended as a dig at the intelligence or linguistic capabilities of other nations. Anyway, that‘s enough "serious" discussion already... time for some fun:

(a * indicates the more popular featured pieces of Chinglish - The newest pieces of Chinglish are at the bottom of the page)

31.最近的人口统计显示中国人口已超过12亿。

[误] The latest census shows that China‘s population has surpassed 1.2 billion.

[正] The latest census shows that China‘s population exceeds 1.2 billion.

注:surpass和exceed译成中文虽然都是“超过,胜过”的意思,但出现具体数字时要用后者。

32.我每天都要在网吧里呆上10个小时,是个不折不扣的网虫。

[误] I spend 10 hours in the net bar every day, and I am indeed a net bug.

[正] I spend 10 hours in the net bar every day, and I am indeed a netter.

注:“网虫”要是直译成net bug,很容易使人联想到计算机病毒,如:the millennium bug(“千年虫”病毒)。所以,英语中与之相应的说法是netter/nettle。在《剑桥国际英语词典》里,对netter/nettle的解释是:regular user of Internet, perhaps one who spends too much time in this occupation。nethead和“网虫”的意思差不多,它表示“网痴,网迷”;而netizen则可以用来指所有的网民,尤其是互联网的用户,它是由net(网络)和citizen(公民)组合而成的。还有一个时髦的词是netsurfer,即“网上冲浪者”。

33.每次考试来临的时候,约翰就变成了一只夜猫子,但这并不是一个好的学习方法。

[误] John becomes a night cat every time the examination is coming. However, this is not a good way to learn.

[正] John becomes a night owl every time the examination is coming. However, this is not a good way to learn.

注:owl是“猫头鹰”的意思,即一种深夜不睡,睁一只眼,闭一只眼,准备随时捕捉田鼠的动物。英语中用night owl来比喻经常熬夜的人,就像我们习惯用“夜猫子”一样。不论叫你“夜猫子”还是a night owl,“开夜车”(burn the midnight oil)总是免不了的。

34.现如今,由于出国深造的人越来越多,“海龟(归)派”也不像原来那样吃香了。

[误] Nowadays as more and more people study abroad, the overseas students are not so popular as before.

[正] Nowadays as more and more people study abroad, the returnees are not so popular as before.

注:“海龟(归)派”是指那些在国外留学以后又回来的人,是个非常形象的新名词。但overseas student是指正在国外学习的“留学生”,意思正好相反,所以要换成returnee。这个词本身就包含在海外学习过的意思。

35.在皎洁的月光下,那个花花公子在我耳边悄悄说着情话。

[误] The playboy whispered love words to my ear with a bright moon in the sky.

[正] The playboy whispered sweet nothings to my ear with a bright moon in the sky.

注:因为“情书”是love letter,“情歌”是love song,所以不少人以为“情话”就应该是love words,其实并非如此。英语中“情话”常用lovers’ prattle或sweet nothings来表达。prattle有“孩子话,废话”的意思,所以lovers‘ prattle指“恋人之间孩子气的废话”;sweet nothings更是一目了然,有“甜蜜而不中用”的意思。

36.比尔.盖茨平均每天工作15个小时,他简直就是一个工作狂。

[误] Bill Gates works 15 hours a day on average, and he is crazy about his work.

[正] Bill Gates works 15 hours a day on average, and he is a workaholic.

注:crazy虽然可以作“疯狂的,狂热的”讲,但be crazy about/on sth.的意思却是“热衷于...,对...着迷”;be crazy for也不行,因为它表示“渴望(某物);迷恋(某人)”。可见,它们都与“工作狂”有一定区别。而workaholic是从alcoholic(嗜酒成癖者)派生出来的,表示像酗酒者离不开酒精一样地离不开工作。现在人们将-holic作为一个后缀,表示“对...上瘾,嗜好...成癖”,并构成了许多新词。例如:movie-holic(嗜好电影成癖的人),telehokic(看电视成癖的人)等。

37.给这们女士来杯威士忌,记在我的账上。

[误] Whisky for this lady, and put it on my bill. [正] Whisky for this lady, and put it on my tab.

注:我们可以说Could we have the bill, please?(请给我们账单好吗?)或pay the bill(埋单),但“记在某某的账上”却不用bill,而要用put...on one‘s tab表示。tab是“小纸片”的意思,因为过去小店的生意都是靠住在附近的老主顾,赊账时有发生,于是老板们通常把每个人的赊账情况记在各自的小纸片上,也就是put...on one‘s tab,以防遗忘。渐渐地,该词组就成了一种习惯用法。

38.哈罗得挥金如土,没有一点积蓄。

[误] Harold spends money like dirt, and has no savings.

[正] Harold spends money like water, and has no savings.

注:英国是一个岛国,离不开水;而我们中国的许多地区深处内陆,人们的生活离不开土地。所以,英语中有许多习语与“水”有关,而汉语却常常拿“土”作比。这就是为什么同样是比喻花钱浪费,大手大脚,英语是spend money like water,而汉语却是“挥金如土”。此外,英语中还有很多有关船和水的习语,例如:rest on one‘s oars(暂时歇一歇),keep one‘s head above water(奋力图存),be all at sea(不知所措)等等。

39.这只表的价钱很贵。

[误] The price of the watch is dear.

[正] The watch is dear. /The price of the watch is high.

注:以物品为主语时用dear或cheap,以定价为主语时就说high或low.

40.昨天晚上我们玩得很愉快。

[误] We played very pleasantly last night.

[正] We enjoyed ourselves very much last night./ We had a good time last night.

注:玩牌,打球,演戏之类就用play,汉语这儿说的玩是指度过一个愉快的时候,最好译成enjoy oneself或have a good time

41.她和男朋友吵了一架,冒着大雨跑了出去。

[误] She quarreled with her boyfriend and ran out in the big rain.

[正] She quarreled with her boyfriend and ran out in the heavy rain.

注:汉语中的“大”可以修饰很多名词,如“大风”、“大浪”、“湿气大”等,但在英语里却不能一一对应。例如,“大雨”就不能译成big rain,因为那会被人误以为是雨点大,而不是雨大。英美人形容雨大习惯用“重”(heavy),heavy rain(大雨),heavy clouds(云雾大),heavy moisture(潮气大)等,这也许是因为他们认为有些事物用重量来衡量比用体积更好吧。

42.歌迷们冲进演员休息室,抢着同凯莉.米纳合影。

[误] The fans rushed into the rest room trying to take photos with Kylie Minogue.

[正] The fans rushed into the greenroom trying to take photos with Kylie Minogue.

注:伦敦西区的特鲁街剧院是英国最古老的剧院,据说为了让演员们长时间处于舞台强烈灯光照射下的眼睛得到休息,那里的演员休息室被漆成了绿色。后来,greenroom就逐渐成了“(剧场)演员休息室”的代名词。而rest room可不是这个意义上的“休息室”,它其实是“厕所”的一种委婉说法。

43.我感到很痛。

[误] I am painful.

[正] I feel great pain.

注:“我感到高兴”是I am happy,“我感到累了”是I‘m tired,但“我感到很痛”却不是I am painful。因为painful表示“使人痛苦的,让人疼痛或讨厌的”,它的主语往往不是人,而是事物或人体的某个部位,如:The foot is painful(脚痛),The lessons are painful(教训是惨痛的)等。所以没有I am painful这个说法,如果你非要这样说,别人会以为你全身带电或浑身长刺,别人碰了你就会疼,是你让别人痛苦,而不是你自己痛苦。

44.亚洲四小龙。[误] the Four Little Dragons of Asia [正] the Four Little Tigers of Asia

注:在我国古代传说中,龙是降雨和惩治妖魔鬼怪的神奇动物,是吉祥和力挽狂澜的象征。很多汉语成语与“龙”有关,如“龙飞凤舞”、“龙凤呈祥”、“藏龙卧虎”等,而且多为褒义词。但如果把“四小龙”直译成英文却不行,因为西方人对“龙”的联想和看法与中国人完全不同。“龙”(dragon)在西方是贬义词,是邪恶的免征,西方人不会理解为什么要把亚洲经济的四个强国说成“四个小魔鬼”,所以要用tiger进行替换。在西方人眼里,tiger “是朝气蓬勃、坚忍不拔、努力奋斗、充满希望”的象征,所以用tiger才能准确表达原文的意思。

45.百里挑一。

[误] one in a hundred [正] one in a thousand

注:“百里挑一”常被用来形容“很特别,很出众”或“与众不同”,one in a thousand也有相同的含义。但值得注意的是,汉语用“百”,而英语则以十倍于百的thousand来夸张。同样,汉语的“十分感谢”或“万分感谢”,英语则说a thousand thanks(千分感谢)或thanks a million times(百万次的感谢)。

46.周末许多人睡得很晚。

[误] Many people sleep late at weekends. [正] Many people go to bed very late at weekends.

注:第一句译文错在没弄懂sleep的真正含义。英语动词有短暂动词和持续动词之分,它们分别表示短暂动作和持续的动作或状态。sleep是典型的持续动词,表示“在睡觉”。而汉语的“睡”既可表示“上床睡觉”的短暂动作,如:我昨天11点才睡;也可以表示“在睡觉”的持续动作和状态,如:他睡了整整10个小时。原文属于前一种情况,即表示“上床睡觉”的短暂动作,故应该使用go to bed。

47.干杯!要一饮而尽。

[误] ---Cheers! Bottom up.

[正] ---Cheers! Bottoms up.

注:bottoms up虽然只比bottom up多一个s,但是两个词组的意思却相差十万八千里。bottoms up里的bottom是指“(酒杯的)底部”,那么杯朝天就是“一饮而尽”的意思,而且因为干杯时肯定不止一人一饮而尽,所以要用复数;而bottom up表示“屁股朝天”。

48.这个任务很危险,但总得有人去冒险。

[误] The task is really dangerous. But someone has to take the adventure.

[正] The task is really dangerous. But someone has to bell the cat.

注:adventure指军事历险、探险旅行等惊险活动或投机活动。而bell the cat源自一个故事:一窝老鼠想在猫脖子上套一个铃铛,这样猫一来他们就会听到,并及时逃命。但主意虽好,却苦于没人去套这个铃铛(bell the cat)。后来,bell the cat被人们反复引用,表示“为大家的事去承担风险”,并成了表示原文意思最贴切的英语习语。

49.一辆白色轿车前来接新郎新娘去教堂。

[误] A white car turned up to take the groom and the bride to the church.

[正] A white car turned up to take the bride and the groom to the church.

注:汉英两种语言均有各自固定的词序,因此,在翻译时要根据各自的语言习惯进行适当的调整,此处就是一个很好的例子。之所以将新娘放在前面,也许是西方文化中“女士优先”的又一体现吧!又如:“衣食住行”译成英语是food, clothing, shelter and transportation;同样,“左顾右盼”翻译成look right and left。

50.你去弄些水来。

[误] Go and bring some water.

[正] Go and fetch some water.

注:bring虽然表示“带来”,但它是让某人在来的时候将某物带来(但说话时人还没来);而fetch则是让身边的某人“去取某物”,它包括往返的两段路程。

英语表示倍数增减或倍数对比的句型多种多样,其中有一些(如下文中的句型②、⑤、⑥、⑧、(12)等,见圈码)很容易译错——其主要原因在于:英汉两语在表述或对比倍数方面存在着语言与思维差异。现将常用的英语倍数句型及其正确译法归纳如下:

倍数增加

(一) A is n times as great(long,much,…)as B.(①)

A is n times greater(longer,more,…)than B.(②)

A is n times the size(length,amount,…)of B.(③)

以上三句都应译为;A的大小(长度,数量,……)是B的n倍[或A比B大(长,多,……)n-1倍].

Eg. This book is three times as long as(three times longer than,three

times the length of)that one.

这本书的篇幅是那本书的3倍(即长两倍)。

注:当相比的对象B很明显时,than(as,of)B常被省去。

(二)increase to n times(④)

increase n times/n-fold(⑤)

increase by n times(⑥)

increase by a factor of n(⑦)

以上四式均应译为:增加到n倍(或:增加n-1倍)。

Eg. The production of integrated circuits has been increased to three times

as compared with last year.

集成电路的产量比去年增加了两倍。

Eg. The output of chemical fertilizer has been raised five times as against

l986.

化肥产量比1986年增加了4倍。

Eg. That can increase metabolic rates by two or three times.

那可使代谢率提高到原来的2倍或3倍(即提高1倍或2倍)。

Eg. The drain voltage has been increased by a factor of four.

漏电压增加了3借(即增加到原来的4倍)。

注:在这类句型中increase常被raise,grow,go/step up,multiply等词所替代。

(三)There is a n-fold increase/growth…(⑧)

应译为:增加n-倍(或增至n倍)。这个句型还有其它一些形式:

Eg. A record high increase in value of four times was reported.

据报道,价值破记录地增长了3倍。

(四)double (增加1倍),treble(增加2倍),quadruple(增加3倍)。(⑨)

Eg. The efficiency of the machines has been more than trebled or quadrupled.

这些机器的效率已提高了2倍或3倍多。

(五)此外,英语中还有一种用again而不用倍数词来比较倍数的方法,如:

A is as much(large,long,…)again as B.(= A is twice as much(large,long,…)as

B.(⑩)

应译为:A比B多(大,长,……)1倍。

A is half as much(large,1ong,…)again as B.

【= A is one and a half times as much(large,1ong,…)as B.】(11)

应译为:A比B多(大,长……)一半(即A是B的一倍半)。

倍数减少

(一)A is n times as small(light,slow,…)as B.(12)

A is n times smaller(lighter,slower,…) than B.(13)

以上两句均应译为:A的大小(重量,速度,……)是B的1/n[或A比B小(轻,慢,……)(n-1)/n]。

Eg. The hydrogen atom is near1y l6 times as light as the oxygen atom.

氢原子的重量约为氧原子的1/16(即比氧原子约轻15/16)。

Eg. This sort of membrane is twice thinner than ordinary paper.

这种薄膜比普通纸张要薄一半(即是普通纸厚度的1/2)。

注:当相比的对象B很明显时,than/as B常被省去。

(二)decrease n times/n--fold(14)

decrease by n times(15)

decrease by a factor of n(16)

以上三式均译为:减少到1/n[或:减少(n-1)/n]。

decrease常被reduce,shorten,go/slow down等词替代。

Eg. Switching time of the new-type transistor is shortened 3 times.

新型晶体管的开关时间缩短了1/3(即缩短到2/3)。

Eg. When the voltage is stepped up by ten times,the strength of the current

is stepped down by ten times.

电压升高9倍,电流强度便降低9/10(即90%)。

Eg. The equipment reduced the error probability by a factor of 5.

该设备误差概率降低了4/5。

(三)There is a n-fold decrease/reduction…

应译为:减至1/n [或:减少(n一1)/n]。(17)

这个句型还有其它一些形式,

Eg. A rapid decrease by a factor of 7 was observed.

发现迅速减少到1/7。

Eg. The principal advantage of the products is a two-fold reduction in

weight.

这些产品的主要优点是重量减轻了1/2。

从上列倍数增减句型及其译法中不难看出:与汉语不同的是,英语在表述或比较倍数时,无论使用什么句型(除了不含倍数词的again句型外)都包括基础倍

数在内,因此都不是净增或净减n倍,而是净增或净减n-1倍。所以句型⑤、③表示的倍数增量=句型④;句型(13)表示的倍数比差=句型12,且decrease(by)

3 times应译为“减少2/3”,而不是“减少3/4”。

01 The Language of Music

A painter hangs his or her finished pictures on a wall, and everyone can see it. A composer writes a work, but no one can hear it until it is performed. Professional singers and players have great responsibilities, for the composer is utterly dependent on them. A student of music needs as long and as arduous a training to become a performer as a medical student needs to become a doctor. Most training is concerned with technique, for musicians have to have the muscular proficiency of an athlete or a ballet dancer. Singers practice breathing every day, as their vocal chords would be inadequate without controlled muscular support. String players practice moving the fingers of the left hand up and down, while drawing the bow to and fro with the right arm—two entirely different movements.

Singers and instruments have to be able to get every note perfectly in tune. Pianists are spared this particular anxiety, for the notes are already there, waiting for them, and it is the piano tuner’s responsibility to tune the instrument for them. But they have their own difficulties; the hammers that hit the string have to be coaxed not to sound like percussion, and each overlapping tone has to sound clear.

This problem of getting clear texture is one that confronts student conductors: they have to learn to know every note of the music and how it should sound, and they have to aim at controlling these sound with fanatical but selfless authority.

Technique is of no use unless it is combined with musical knowledge and understanding. Great artists are those who are so thoroughly at home in the language of music that they can enjoy performing works written in any century.

02 Schooling and Education

It is commonly believed in United States that school is where people go to get an education. Nevertheless, it has been said that today children interrupt their education to go to school. The distinction between schooling and education implied by this remark is important.

Education is much more open-ended and all-inclusive than schooling. Education knows no bounds. It can take place anywhere, whether in the shower or in the job, whether in a kitchen or on a tractor. It includes both the formal learning that takes place in schools and the whole universe of informal learning. The agents of education can range from a revered grandparent to the people debating politics on the radio, from a child to a distinguished scientist. Whereas schooling has a certain predictability, education quite often produces surprises. A chance conversation with a stranger may lead a person to discover how little is known of other religions. People are engaged in education from infancy on. Education, then, is a very broad, inclusive term. It is a lifelong process, a process that starts long before the start of school, and one that should be an integral part of one’s entire life.

Schooling, on the other hand, is a specific, formalized process, whose general pattern varies little from one setting to the next. Throughout a country, children arrive at school at approximately the same time, take assigned seats, are taught by an adult, use similar textbooks, do homework, take exams, and so on. The slices of reality that are to be learned, whether they are the alphabet or an understanding of the working of government, have usually been limited by the boundaries of the subject being taught. For example, high school students know that there not likely to find out in their classes the truth about political problems in their communities or what the newest filmmakers are experimenting with. There are definite conditions surrounding the formalized process of schooling.

03 The Definition of“Price”

Prices determine how resources are to be used. They are also the means by which products and services that are in limited supply are rationed among buyers. The price system of the United States is a complex network composed of the prices of all the products bought and sold in the economy as well as those of a myriad of services, including labor, professional, transportation, and public-utility services. The interrelationships of all these prices make up the“system”of prices. The price of any particular product or service is linked to a broad, complicated system of prices in which everything seems to depend more or less upon everything else.

If one were to ask a group of randomly selected individuals to define“price”, many would reply that price is an amount of money paid by the buyer to the seller of a product or service or, in other words that price is the money values of a product or service as agreed upon in a market transaction. This definition is, of course, valid as far as it goes. For a complete understanding of a price in any particular transaction, much more than the amount of money involved must be known. Both the buyer and the seller should be familiar with not only the money amount, but with the amount and quality of the product or service to be exchanged, the time and place at which the exchange will take place and payment will be made, the form of money to be used, the credit terms and discounts that apply to the transaction, guarantees on the product or service, delivery terms, return privileges, and other factors. In other words, both buyer and seller should be fully aware of all the factors that comprise the total“package”being exchanged for the asked-for amount of money in order that they may evaluate a given price.

04 Electricity

The modern age is an age of electricity. People are so used to electric lights, radio, televisions, and telephones that it is hard to imagine what life would be like without them. When there is a power failure, people grope about in flickering candlelight, cars hesitate in the streets because there are no traffic lights to guide them, and food spoils in silent refrigerators.

Yet, people began to understand how electricity works only a little more than two centuries ago. Nature has apparently been experimenting in this field for million of years. Scientists are discovering more and more that the living world may hold many interesting secrets of electricity that could benefit humanity.

All living cell send out tiny pulses of electricity. As the heart beats, it sends out pulses of record; they form an electrocardiogram, which a doctor can study to determine how well the heart is working. The brain, too, sends out brain waves of electricity, which can be recorded in an electroencephalogram. The electric currents generated by most living cells are extremely small–often so small that sensitive instruments are needed to record them. But in some animals, certain muscle cells have become so specialized as electrical generators that they do not work as muscle cells at all. When large numbers of these cell are linked together, the effects can be astonishing.

The electric eel is an amazing storage battery. It can seed a jolt of as much as eight hundred volts of electricity through the water in which it live. ( An electric house current is only one hundred twenty volts.) As many as four-fifths of all the cells in the electric eel’s body are specialized for generating electricity, and the strength of the shock it can deliver corresponds roughly to length of its body.

05 The Beginning of Drama

There are many theories about the beginning of drama in ancient Greece. The on most widely accepted today is based on the assumption that drama evolved from ritual. The argument for this view goes as follows. In the beginning, human beings viewed the natural forces of the world-even the seasonal changes-as unpredictable, and they sought through various means to control these unknown and feared powers. Those measures which appeared to bring the desired results were then retained and repeated until they hardened into fixed rituals. Eventually stories arose which explained or veiled the mysteries of the rites. As time passed some rituals were abandoned, but the stories, later called myths, persisted and provided material for art and drama.

Those who believe that drama evolved out of ritual also argue that those rites contained the seed of theater because music, dance, masks, and costumes were almost always used, Furthermore, a suitable site had to be provided for performances and when the entire community did not participate, a clear division was usually made between the "acting area" and the "auditorium." In addition, there were performers, and, since considerable importance was attached to avoiding mistakes in the enactment of rites, religious leaders usually assumed that task. Wearing masks and costumes, they often impersonated other people, animals, or supernatural beings, and mimed the desired effect-success in hunt or battle, the coming rain, the revival of the Sun-as an actor might. Eventually such dramatic representations were separated from religious activities.

Another theory traces the theater's origin from the human interest in storytelling. According to this vies tales (about the hunt, war, or other feats) are gradually elaborated, at first through the use of impersonation, action, and dialogue by a narrator and then through the assumption of each of the roles by a different person. A closely related theory traces theater to those dances that are primarily rhythmical and gymnastic or that are imitations of animal movements and sounds.

06 Television

Television-----the most pervasive and persuasive of modern technologies, marked by rapid change and growth-is moving into a new era, an era of extraordinary sophistication and versatility, which promises to reshape our lives and our world. It is an electronic revolution of sorts, made possible by the marriage of television and computer technologies.

The word "television", derived from its Greek (tele: distant) and Latin (visio: sight) roots, can literally be interpreted as sight from a distance. Very simply put, it works in this way: through a sophisticated system of electronics, television provides the capability of converting an image (focused on a special photoconductive plate within a camera) into electronic impulses, which can be sent through a wire or cable. These impulses, when fed into a receiver (television set), can then be electronically reconstituted into that same image.

Television is more than just an electronic system, however. It is a means of expression, as well as a vehicle for communication, and as such becomes a powerful tool for reaching other human beings.

The field of television can be divided into two categories determined by its means of transmission. First, there is broadcast television, which reaches the masses through broad-based airwave transmission of television signals. Second, there is nonbroadcast television, which provides for the needs of individuals or specific interest groups through controlled transmission techniques.

Traditionally, television has been a medium of the masses. We are most familiar with broadcast television because it has been with us for about thirty-seven years in a form similar to what exists today. During those years, it has been controlled, for the most part, by the broadcast networks, ABC, NBC, and CBS, who have been the major purveyors of news, information, and entertainment. These giants of broadcasting have actually shaped not only television but our perception of it as well. We have come to look upon the picture tube as a source of entertainment, placing our role in this dynamic medium as the passive viewer.

07 Andrew Carnegie

Andrew Carnegie, known as the King of Steel, built the steel industry in the United States, and , in the process, became one of the wealthiest men in America. His success resulted in part from his ability to sell the product and in part from his policy of expanding during periods of economic decline, when most of his competitors were reducing their investments.

Carnegie believed that individuals should progress through hard work, but he also felt strongly that the wealthy should use their fortunes for the benefit of society. He opposed charity, preferring instead to provide educational opportunities that would allow others to help themselves. "He who dies rich, dies disgraced," he often said.

Among his more noteworthy contributions to society are those that bear his name, including the Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh, which has a library, a museum of fine arts, and a museum of national history. He also founded a school of technology that is now part of Carnegie-Mellon University. Other philanthrophic gifts are the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace to promote understanding between nations, the Carnegie Institute of Washington to fund scientific research, and Carnegie Hall to provide a center for the arts.

Few Americans have been left untouched by Andrew Carnegie's generosity. His contributions of more than five million dollars established 2,500 libraries in small communities throughout the country and formed the nucleus of the public library system that we all enjoy today.

08 American Revolution

The American Revolution was not a sudden and violent overturning of the political and social framework, such as later occurred in France and Russia, when both were already independent nations. Significant changes were ushered in, but they were not breathtaking. What happened was accelerated evolution rather than outright revolution. During the conflict itself people went on working and praying, marrying and playing. Most of them were not seriously disturbed by the actual fighting, and many of the more isolated communities scarcely knew that a war was on.

America's War of Independence heralded the birth of three modern nations. One was Canada, which received its first large influx of English-speaking population from the thousands of loyalists who fled there from the United States. Another was Australia, which became a penal colony now that America was no longer available for prisoners and debtors. The third newcomer-the United States-based itself squarely on republican principles.

Yet even the political overturn was not so revolutionary as one might suppose. In some states, notably Connecticut and Rhode Island, the war largely ratified a colonial self-rule already existing. British officials, everywhere ousted, were replaced by a home-grown governing class, which promptly sought a local substitute for king and Parliament.

09 Suburbanization

If by "suburb" is meant an urban margin that grows more rapidly than its already developed interior, the process of suburbanization began during the emergence of the industrial city in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Before that period the city was a small highly compact cluster in which people moved about on foot and goods were conveyed by horse and cart. But the early factories built in the 1840's were located along waterways and near railheads at the edges of cities, and housing was needed for the thousands of people drawn by the prospect of employment. In time, the factories were surrounded by proliferating mill towns of apartments and row houses that abutted the older, main cities. As a defense against this encroachment and to enlarge their tax bases, the cities appropriated their industrial neighbors. In 1854, for example, the city of Philadelphia annexed most of Philadelphia County. Similar municipal maneuvers took place in Chicago and in New York. Indeed, most great cities of the United States achieved such status only by incorporating the communities along their borders.

With the acceleration of industrial growth came acute urban crowding and accompanying social stress-conditions that began to approach disastrous proportions when, in 1888, the first commercially successful electric traction line was developed. Within a few years the horse-drawn trolleys were retired and electric streetcar networks crisscrossed and connected every major urban area, fostering a wave of suburbanization that transformed the compact industrial city into a dispersed metropolis. This first phase of mass-scale suburbanization was reinforced by the simultaneous emergence of the urban Middle Class, whose desires for homeownership in neighborhoods far from the aging inner city were satisfied by the developers of single-family housing tracts.

10 Types of Speech

Standard usage includes those words and expressions understood, used, and accepted by a majority of the speakers of a language in any situation regardless of the level of formality. As such, these words and expressions are well defined and listed in standard dictionaries. Colloquialisms, on the other hand, are familiar words and idioms that are understood by almost all speakers of a language and used in informal speech or writing, but not considered appropriate for more formal situations. Almost all idiomatic expressions are colloquial language. Slang, however, refers to words and expressions understood by a large number of speakers but not accepted as good, formal usage by the majority. Colloquial expressions and even slang may be found in standard dictionaries but will be so identified. Both colloquial usage and slang are more common in speech than in writing.

Colloquial speech often passes into standard speech. Some slang also passes into standard speech, but other slang expressions enjoy momentary popularity followed by obscurity. In some cases, the majority never accepts certain slang phrases but nevertheless retains them in their collective memories. Every generation seems to require its own set of words to describe familiar objects and events. It has been pointed out by a number of linguists that three cultural conditions are necessary for the creation of a large body of slang expressions. First, the introduction and acceptance of new objects and situations in the society; second, a diverse population with a large number of subgroups; third, association among the subgroups and the majority population.

Finally, it is worth noting that the terms "standard" "colloquial" and "slang" exist only as abstract labels for scholars who study language. Only a tiny number of the speakers of any language will be aware that they are using colloquial or slang expressions. Most speakers of English will, during appropriate situations, select and use all three types of expressions.

11 Archaeology

Archaeology is a source of history, not just a bumble auxiliary discipline. Archaeological data are historical documents in their own right, not mere illustrations to written texts, Just as much as any other historian, an archaeologist studies and tries to reconstitute the process that has created the human world in which we live - and us ourselves in so far as we are each creatures of our age and social environment. Archaeological data are all changes in the material world resulting from human action or, more succinctly, the fossilized results of human behavior. The sum total of these constitutes what may be called the archaeological record. This record exhibits certain peculiarities and deficiencies the consequences of which produce a rather superficial contrast between archaeological history and the more familiar kind based upon written records.

Not all human behavior fossilizes. The words I utter and you hear as vibrations in the air are certainly human changes in the material world and may be of great historical significance. Yet they leave no sort of trace in the archaeological records unless they are captured by a dictaphone or written down by a clerk. The movement of troops on the battlefield may "change the course of history," but this is equally ephemeral from the archaeologist's standpoint. What is perhaps worse, most organic materials are perishable. Everything made of wood, hide, wool, linen, grass, hair, and similar materials will decay and vanish in dust in a few years or centuries, save under very exceptional conditions. In a relatively brief period the archaeological record is reduce to mere scraps of stone, bone, glass, metal, and earthenware. Still modern archaeology, by applying appropriate techniques and comparative methods, aided by a few lucky finds from peat-bogs, deserts, and frozen soils, is able to fill up a good deal of the gap.

12 Museums

From Boston to Los Angeles, from New York City to Chicago to Dallas, museums are either planning, building, or wrapping up wholesale expansion programs. These programs already have radically altered facades and floor plans or are expected to do so in the not-too-distant future.

In New York City alone, six major institutions have spread up and out into the air space and neighborhoods around them or are preparing to do so.

The reasons for this confluence of activity are complex, but one factor is a consideration everywhere - space. With collections expanding, with the needs and functions of museums changing, empty space has become a very precious commodity.

Probably nowhere in the country is this more true than at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, which has needed additional space for decades and which received its last significant facelift ten years ago. Because of the space crunch, the Art Museum has become increasingly cautious in considering acquisitions and donations of art, in some cases passing up opportunities to strengthen its collections.

Deaccessing - or selling off - works of art has taken on new importance because of the museum's space problems. And increasingly, curators have been forced to juggle gallery space, rotating one masterpiece into public view while another is sent to storage.

Despite the clear need for additional gallery and storage space, however," the museum has no plan, no plan to break out of its envelope in the next fifteen years," according to Philadelphia Museum of Art's president.

13 Skyscrapers and Environment

In the late 1960's, many people in North America turned their attention to environmental problems, and new steel-and-glass skyscrapers were widely criticized. Ecologists pointed out that a cluster of tall buildings in a city often overburdens public transportation and parking lot capacities.

Skyscrapers are also lavish consumers, and wasters, of electric power. In one recent year, the addition of 17 million square feet of skyscraper office space in New York City raised the peak daily demand for electricity by 120, 000 kilowatts-enough to supply the entire city of Albany, New York, for a day.

Glass-walled skyscrapers can be especially wasteful. The heat loss (or gain)through a wall of half-inch plate glass is more than ten times that through a typical masonry wall filled with insulation board. To lessen the strain on heating and air-conditioning equipment, builders of skyscrapers have begun to use double-glazed panels of glass, and reflective glasses coated with silver or gold mirror films that reduce glare as well as heat gain. However, mirror-walled skyscrapers raise the temperature of the surrounding air and affect neighboring buildings.

Skyscrapers put a severe strain on a city's sanitation facilities, too. If fully occupied, the two World Trade Center towers in New York City would alone generate 2.25 million gallons of raw sewage each year-as much as a city the size of Stanford, Connecticut , which has a population of more than 109, 000.

14 A Rare Fossil Record

The preservation of embryos and juveniles is a rate occurrence in the fossil record. The tiny, delicate skeletons are usually scattered by scavengers or destroyed by weathering before they can be fossilized. Ichthyosaurs had a higher chance of being preserved than did terrestrial creatures because, as marine animals, they tended to live in environments less subject to erosion. Still, their fossilization required a suite of factors: a slow rate of decay of soft tissues, little scavenging by other animals, a lack of swift currents and waves to jumble and carry away small bones, and fairly rapid burial. Given these factors, some areas have become a treasury of well-preserved ichthyosaur fossils.

The deposits at Holzmaden, Germany, present an interesting case for analysis. The ichthyosaur remains are found in black, bituminous marine shales deposited about 190 million years ago. Over the years, thousands of specimens of marine reptiles, fish and invertebrates have been recovered from these rocks. The quality of preservation is outstanding, but what is even more impressive is the number of ichthyosaur fossils containing preserved embryos. Ichthyosaurs with embryos have been reported from 6 different levels of the shale in a small area around Holzmaden, suggesting that a specific site was used by large numbers of ichthyosaurs repeatedly over time. The embryos are quite advanced in their physical development; their paddles, for example, are already well formed. One specimen is even preserved in the birth canal. In addition, the shale contains the remains of many newborns that are between 20 and 30 inches long.

Why are there so many pregnant females and young at Holzmaden when they are so rare elsewhere? The quality of preservation is almost unmatched and quarry operations have been carried out carefully with an awareness of the value of the fossils. But these factors do not account for the interesting question of how there came to be such a concentration of pregnant ichthyosaurs in a particular place very close to their time of giving birth.

15 The Nobel Academy

For the last 82years, Sweden's Nobel Academy has decided who will receive the Nobel Prize in Literature, thereby determining who will be elevated from the great and the near great to the immortal. But today the Academy is coming under heavy criticism both from the without and from within. Critics contend that the selection of the winners often has less to do with true writing ability than with the peculiar internal politics of the Academy and of Sweden itself. According to Ingmar Bjorksten , the cultural editor for one of the country's two major newspapers, the prize continues to represent "what people call a very Swedish exercise: reflecting Swedish tastes."

The Academy has defended itself against such charges of provincialism in its selection by asserting that its physical distance from the great literary capitals of the world actually serves to protect the Academy from outside influences. This may well be true, but critics respond that this very distance may also be responsible for the Academy's inability to perceive accurately authentic trends in the literary world.

Regardless of concerns over the selection process, however, it seems that the prize will continue to survive both as an indicator of the literature that we most highly praise, and as an elusive goal that writers seek. If for no other reason, the prize will continue to be desirable for the financial rewards that accompany it; not only is the cash prize itself considerable, but it also dramatically increases sales of an author's books.

16. the war between Britain and France

In the late eighteenth century, battles raged in almost every corner of Europe, as well as in the Middle East, south Africa ,the West Indies, and Latin America. In reality, however, there was only one major war during this time, the war between Britain and France. All other battles were ancillary to this larger conflict, and were often at least partially related to its antagonist’goals and strategies. France sought total domination of Europe . this goal was obstructed by British independence and Britain’s efforts throughout the continent to thwart Napoleon; through treaties. Britain built coalitions (not dissimilar in concept to today’s NATO) guaranteeing British participation in all major European conflicts. These two antagonists were poorly matched, insofar as they had very unequal strengths; France was predominant on land, Britain at sea. The French knew that, short of defeating the British navy, their only hope of victory was to close all the ports of Europe to British ships. Accordingly, France set out to overcome Britain by extending its military domination from Moscow t Lisbon, from Jutland to Calabria. All of this entailed tremendous risk, because France did not have the military resources to control this much territory and still protect itself and maintain order at home.

French strategists calculated that a navy of 150 ships would provide the force necessary to defeat the British navy. Such a force would give France a three-to-two advantage over Britain. This advantage was deemed necessary because of Britain’s superior sea skills and technology because of Britain’s superior sea skills and technology, and also because Britain would be fighting a defensive war, allowing it to win with fewer forces. Napoleon never lost substantial impediment to his control of Europe. As his force neared that goal, Napoleon grew increasingly impatient and began planning an immediate attack.

17.Evolution of sleep

Sleep is very ancient. In the electroencephalographic sense we share it with all the primates and almost all the other mammals and birds: it may extend back as far as the reptiles.

There is some evidence that the two types of sleep, dreaming and dreamless, depend on the life-style of the animal, and that predators are statistically much more likely to dream than prey, which are in turn much more likely to experience dreamless sleep. In dream sleep, the animal is powerfully immobilized and remarkably unresponsive to external stimuli. Dreamless sleep is much shallower, and we have all witnessed cats or dogs cocking their ears to a sound when apparently fast asleep. The fact that deep dream sleep is rare among pray today seems clearly to be a product of natural selection, and it makes sense that today, when sleep is highly evolved, the stupid animals are less frequently immobilized by deep sleep than the smart ones. But why should they sleep deeply at all? Why should a state of such deep immobilization ever have evolved?

Perhaps one useful hint about the original function of sleep is to be found in the fact that dolphins and whales and aquatic mammals in genera seem to sleep very little. There is, by and large, no place to hide in the ocean. Could it be that, rather than increasing an animal’s vulnerability, the University of Florida and Ray Meddis of London University have suggested this to be the case. It is conceivable that animals who are too stupid to be quite on their own initiative are, during periods of high risk, immobilized by the implacable arm of sleep. The point seems particularly clear for the young of predatory animals. This is an interesting notion and probably at least partly true.

18. Modern American Universities

Before the 1850’s, the United States had a number of small colleges, most of them dating from colonial days. They were small, church connected institutions whose primary concern was to shape the moral character of their students.

Throughout Europe, institutions of higher learning had developed, bearing the ancient name of university. In German university was concerned primarily with creating and spreading knowledge, not morals. Between mid-century and the end of the 1800’s, more than nine thousand young Americans, dissatisfied with their training at home, went to Germany for advanced study. Some of them return to become presidents of venerable colleges-----Harvard, Yale, Columbia---and transform them into modern universities. The new presidents broke all ties with the churches and brought in a new kind of faculty. Professors were hired for their knowledge of a subject, not because they were of the proper faith and had a strong arm for disciplining students. The new principle was that a university was to create knowledge as well as pass it on, and this called for a faculty composed of teacher-scholars. Drilling and learning by rote were replaced by the German method of lecturing, in which the professor’s own research was presented in class. Graduate training leading to the Ph.D., an ancient German degree signifying the highest level of advanced scholarly attainment, was introduced. With the establishment of the seminar system, graduate student learned to question, analyze, and conduct their own research.

At the same time, the new university greatly expanded in size and course offerings, breaking completely out of the old, constricted curriculum of mathematics, classics, rhetoric, and music. The president of Harvard pioneered the elective system, by which students were able to choose their own course of study. The notion of major fields of study emerged. The new goal was to make the university relevant to the real pursuits of the world. Paying close heed to the practical needs of society, the new universities trained men and women to work at its tasks, with engineering students being the most characteristic of the new regime. Students were also trained as economists, architects, agriculturalists, social welfare workers, and teachers.

19. Children’s numerical skills

people appear to born to compute. The numerical skills of children develop so early and so inexorably that it is easy to imagine an internal clock of mathematical maturity guiding their growth. Not long after learning to walk and talk, they can set the table with impress accuracy---one knife, one spoon, one fork, for each of the five chairs. Soon they are capable of nothing that they have placed five knives, spoons and forks on the table and, a bit later, that this amounts to fifteen pieces of silverware. Having thus mastered addition, they move on to subtraction. It seems almost reasonable to expect that if a child were secluded on a desert island at birth and retrieved seven years later, he or she could enter a second enter a second-grade mathematics class without any serious problems of intellectual adjustment.

Of course, the truth is not so simple. This century, the work of cognitive psychologists has illuminated the subtle forms of daily learning on which intellectual progress depends. Children were observed as they slowly grasped-----or, as the case might be, bumped into-----concepts that adults take for quantity is unchanged as water pours from a short glass into a tall thin one. Psychologists have since demonstrated that young children, asked to count the pencils in a pile, readily report the number of blue or red pencils, but must be coaxed into finding the total. Such studies have suggested that the rudiments of mathematics are mastered gradually, and with effort. They have also suggested that the very concept of abstract numbers------the idea of a oneness,

a twoness, a threeness that applies to any class of objects and is a prerequisite for doing anything more mathematically demanding than setting a table-----is itself far from innate

20 The Historical Significance of American Revolution

The ways of history are so intricate and the motivations of human actions so complex that it is always hazardous to attempt to represent events covering a number of years, a multiplicity of persons, and distant localities as the expression of one intellectual or social movement; yet the historical process which culminated in the ascent of Thomas Jefferson to the presidency can be regarded as the outstanding example not only of the birth of a new way of life but of nationalism as a new way of life. The American Revolution represents the link between the seventeenth century, in which modern England became conscious of itself, and the awakening of modern Europe at the end of the eighteenth century. It may seem strange that the march of history should have had to cross the Atlantic Ocean, but only in the North American colonies could a struggle for civic liberty lead also to the foundation of a new nation. Here, in the popular rising against a“tyrannical”government, the fruits were more than the securing of a freer constitution. They included the growth of a nation born in liberty by the will of the people, not from the roots of common descent, a geographic entity, or the ambitions of king or dynasty. With the American nation, for the first time, a nation was born, not in the dim past of history but before the eyes of the whole world.

21 The Origin of Sports

When did sport begin? If sport is, in essence, play, the claim might be made that sport is much older than humankind, for , as we all have observed, the beasts play. Dogs and cats wrestle and play ball games. Fishes and birds dance. The apes have simple, pleasurable games. Frolicking infants, school children playing tag, and adult arm wrestlers are demonstrating strong, transgenerational and transspecies bonds with the universe of animals–past, present, and future. Young animals, particularly, tumble, chase, run wrestle, mock, imitate, and laugh (or so it seems) to the point of delighted exhaustion. Their play, and ours, appears to serve no other purpose than to give pleasure to the players, and apparently, to remove us temporarily from the anguish of life in earnest.

Some philosophers have claimed that our playfulness is the most noble part of our basic nature. In their generous conceptions, play harmlessly and experimentally permits us to put our creative forces, fantasy, and imagination into action. Play is release from the tedious battles against scarcity and decline which are the incessant, and inevitable, tragedies of life. This is a grand conception that excites and provokes. The holders of this view claim that the origins of our highest accomplishments ---- liturgy, literature, and law ---- can be traced to a play impulse which, paradoxically, we see most purely enjoyed by young beasts and children. Our sports, in this rather happy, nonfatalistic view of human nature, are more splendid creations of the nondatable, transspecies play impulse.

22. Collectibles

Collectibles have been a part of almost every culture since ancient times. Whereas some objects have been collected for their usefulness, others have been selected for their aesthetic beauty alone. In the United States, the kinds of collectibles currently popular range from traditional objects such as stamps, coins, rare books, and art to more recent items of interest like dolls, bottles, baseball cards, and comic books.

Interest in collectibles has increased enormously during the past decade, in part because some collectibles have demonstrated their value as investments. Especially during cycles of high inflation, investors try to purchase tangibles that will at least retain their current market values. In general, the most traditional collectibles will be sought because they have preserved their value over the years, there is an organized auction market for them, and they are most easily sold in the event that cash is needed. Some examples of the most stable collectibles are old masters, Chinese ceramics, stamps, coins, rare books, antique jewelry, silver, porcelain, art by well-known artists, autographs, and period furniture. Other items of more recent interest include old photograph records, old magazines, post cards, baseball cards, art glass, dolls, classic cars, old bottles, and comic books. These relatively new kinds of collectibles may actually appreciate faster as short-term investments, but may not hold their value as long-term investments. Once a collectible has had its initial play, it appreciates at a fairly steady rate, supported by an increasing number of enthusiastic collectors competing for the limited supply of collectibles that become increasingly more difficult to locate.

23 Ford

Although Henry Ford’s name is closely associated with the concept of mass production, he should receive equal credit for introducing labor practices as early as 1913 that would be considered advanced even by today’s standards. Safety measures were improved, and the work day was reduced to eight hours, compared with the ten-or twelve-hour day common at the time. In order to accommodate the shorter work day, the entire factory was converted from two to three shifts.

In addition, sick leaves as well as improved medical care for those injured on the job were instituted. The Ford Motor Company was one of the first factories to develop a technical school to train specialized skilled laborers and an English language school for immigrants. Some efforts were even made to hire the handicapped and provide jobs for former convicts.

The most widely acclaimed innovation was the five-dollar-a-day minimum wage that was offered in order to recruit and retain the best mechanics and to discourage the growth of labor unions. Ford explained the new wage policy in terms of efficiency and profit sharing. He also mentioned the fact that his employees would be able to purchase the automobiles that they produced–in effect creating a market for the product. In order to qualify for the minimum wage, an employee had to establish a decent home and demonstrate good personal habits, including sobriety, thriftiness, industriousness, and dependability. Although some criticism was directed at Ford for involving himself too much in the personal lives of his employees, there can be no doubt that, at a time when immigrants were being taken advantage of in frightful ways, Henry Ford was helping many people to establish themselves in America.

24.Piano

The ancestry of the piano can be traced to the early keyboard instruments of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries --- the spinet, the dulcimer, and the virginal. In the seventeenth century the organ, the clavichord, and the harpsichord became the chief instruments of the keyboard group, a supremacy they maintained until the piano supplanted them at the end of the eighteenth century. The clavichord’s tone was metallic and never powerful; nevertheless, because of the variety of tone possible to it, many composers found the clavichord a sympathetic instrument for intimate chamber music. The harpsichord with its bright, vigorous tone was the favorite instrument for supporting the bass of the small orchestra of the period and for concert use, but the character of the tone could not be varied save by mechanical or structural devices.

The piano was perfected in the early eighteenth century by a harpsichord maker in Italy (though musicologists point out several previous instances of the instrument). This instrument was called a piano e forte (sort and loud), to indicate its dynamic versatility; its strings were struck by a recoiling hammer with a felt-padded head. The wires were much heavier in the earlier instruments. A series of mechanical improvements continuing well into the nineteenth century, including the introduction of pedals to sustain tone or to soften it, the perfection of a metal frame, and steel wire of the finest quality, finally produced an instrument capable of myriad tonal effects from the most delicate harmonies to an almost orchestral fullness of sound, from a liquid, singing tone to a sharp, percussive brilliance.

NOTE:

Musical Instruments

1.The strings (弦乐)

1) plectrum: harp, lute, guitar, mandolin;

2) keyboard: clavichord, harpsichord, piano;

3) bow: violin, viola, cello, double bass.

2. The Wood(木管)—winds : piccolo, flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, English horn;

3. the brass(铜管): French horn, trumpet, trombone, cornet, tuba, bugle, saxophone;

4.the percussion(打击组): kettle drum, bass drum, snare drum, castanet, xylophone, celesta, cymbal, tambourine.

25. Movie Music

Accustomed though we are to speaking of the films made before 1927 as“silent”, the film has never been, in the full sense of the word, silent. From the very beginning, music was regarded as an indispensable accompaniment; when the Lumiere films were shown at the first public film exhibition in the United States in February 1896, they were accompanied by piano improvisations on popular tunes. At first, the music played bore no special relationship to the films; an accompaniment of any kind was sufficient. Within a very short time, however, the incongruity of playing lively music to a solemn film became apparent, and film pianists began to take some care in matching their pieces to the mood of the film.

As movie theaters grew in number and importance, a violinist, and perhaps a cellist, would be added to the pianist in certain cases, and in the larger movie theaters small orchestras were formed. For a number of years the selection of music for each film program rested entirely in the hands of the conductor or leader of the orchestra, and very often the principal qualification for holding such a position was not skill or taste so much as the ownership of a large personal library of musical pieces. Since the conductor seldom saw the films until the night before they were to be shown(if indeed, the conductor was lucky enough to see them then), the musical arrangement was normally improvised in the greatest hurry.

To help meet this difficulty, film distributing companies started the practice of publishing suggestions for musical accompaniments. In 1909, for example, the Edison Company began issuing with their films such indications of mood as“pleasant”,“sad”,“lively”. The suggestions became more explicit, and so emerged the musical cue sheet containing indications of mood, the titles of suitable pieces of music, and precise directions to show where one piece led into the next.

Certain films had music especially composed for them. The most famous of these early special scores was that composed and arranged for D.W Griffith’s film Birth of a Nation, which was released in 1915.

Note:

美国通俗音乐分类:

1.Jazz;

1) traditional jazz---- a) blues,代表人物:Billy Holiday

b)ragtime(切分乐曲):代表人物:Scott Joplin

c)New Orleans jazz (= Dixieland jazz) eg: Louis Armstron

d)swing eg: Glenn Miller, Duke Ellington, etc.

e)bop (=bebop, rebop) eg: Lester Young, Charlie Parker etc.

2)modern jazz ------ a) cool jazz(=progressive jazz)高雅爵士乐。Eg: Kenny G.

b)third-stream jazz. Eg: Charles Mingus, John Lewis.

c) main stream jazz.

d)avant-garde jazz.

e) soul jazz. Eg: Sarah Vaughn, Ella Fitzgerald

f) Latin jazz.

2.gospel music福音音乐,主要源于Nero spirituals. Eg. Dolly Parker, Mahalia Jackson

3.Country and Western music. Eg. John Denver, Tammy Wynette, Kenny Rogers, etc.

4. Rock music-----------a) rock and roll eg: Elvis Prestley(US) , the Beatles(UK.)

b)folk rock Eg: Bob Dylon, Michael Jackson, Mariah Carey, Bruce Springsteen, Lionel Riche etc.

c)punk rock

d)acid rock

e)rock jazz eg: M.J. McLaughlin

f) Jurassic rock

5.Music for easy listening (i.e. light music )

26. International Business and Cross-cultural Communication

The increase in international business and in foreign investment has created a need for executives with knowledge of foreign languages and skills in cross-cultural communication. Americans, however, have not been well trained in either area and, consequently, have not enjoyed the same level of success in negotiation in an international arena as have their foreign counterparts.

Negotiating is the process of communicating back and forth for the purpose of reaching an agreement. It involves persuasion and compromise, but in order to participate in either one, the negotiators must understand the ways in which people are persuaded and how compromise is reached within the culture of the negotiation.

In many international business negotiations abroad, Americans are perceived as wealthy and impersonal. It often appears to the foreign negotiator that the American represents a large multi-million-dollar corporation that can afford to pay the price without bargaining further. The American negotiator’s role becomes that of an impersonal purveyor of information and cash.

In studies of American negotiators abroad, several traits have been identified that may serve to confirm this stereotypical perception, while undermining the negotiator’s position. Two traits in particular that cause cross-cultural misunderstanding are directness and impatience on the part of the American negotiator. Furthermore, American negotiators often insist on realizing short-term goals. Foreign negotiators, on the other hand, may value the relationship established between negotiators and may be willing to invest time in it for long-term benefits. In order to solidify the relationship, they may opt for indirect interactions without regard for the time involved in getting to know the other negotiator.

27. Scientific Theories

In science, a theory is a reasonable explanation of observed events that are related. A theory often involves an imaginary model that helps scientists picture the way an observed event could be produced. A good example of this is found in the kinetic molecular theory, in which gases are pictured as being made up of many small particles that are in constant motion.

A useful theory, in addition to explaining past observations, helps to predict events that have not as yet been observed. After a theory has been publicized, scientists design experiments to test the theory. If observations confirm the scientist’s predictions, the theory is supported. If observations do not confirm the predictions, the scientists must search further. There may be a fault in the experiment, or the theory may have to be revised or rejected.

Science involves imagination and creative thinking as well as collecting information and performing experiments. Facts by themselves are not science. As the mathematician Jules Henri Poincare said,“Science is built with facts just as a house is built with bricks, but a collection of facts cannot be called science any more than a pile of bricks can be called a house.”

Most scientists start an investigation by finding out what other scientists have learned about a particular problem. After known facts have been gathered, the scientist comes to the part of the investigation that requires considerable imagination. Possible solutions to the problem are formulated. These possible solutions are called hypotheses.

In a way, any hypothesis is a leap into the unknown. It extends the scientist’s thinking beyond the known facts. The scientist plans experiments, performs calculations, and makes observations to test hypotheses. Without hypothesis, further investigation lacks purpose and direction. When hypotheses are confirmed, they are incorporated into theories.

28.Changing Roles of Public Education

One of the most important social developments that helped to make possible a shift in thinking about the role of public education was the effect of the baby boom of the 1950's and 1960's on the schools. In the 1920's, but especially in the Depression conditions of the 1930's, the United States experienced a declining birth rate --- every thousand women aged fifteen to forty-four gave birth to about 118 live children in 1920, 89.2 in 1930, 75.8 in 1936, and 80 in 1940. With the growing prosperity brought on by the Second World War and the economic boom that followed it young people married and established households earlier and began to raise larger families than had their predecessors during the Depression. Birth rates rose to 102 per thousand in 1946,106.2 in 1950, and 118 in 1955. Although economics was probably the most important determinant, it is not the only explanation for the baby boom. The increased value placed on the idea of the family also helps to explain this rise in birth rates. The baby boomers began streaming into the first grade by the mid 1940's and became a flood by 1950. The public school system suddenly found itself overtaxed. While the number of schoolchildren rose because of wartime and postwar conditions, these same conditions made the schools even less prepared to cope with the food. The wartime economy meant that few new schools were built between 1940 and 1945. Moreover, during the war and in the boom times that followed, large numbers of teachers left their profession for better-paying jobs elsewhere in the economy.

Therefore in the 1950’s and 1960’s, the baby boom hit an antiquated and inadequate school system. Consequently, the“custodial rhetoric”of the 1930’s and early 1940’s no longer made sense that is, keeping youths aged sixteen and older out of the labor market by keeping them in school could no longer be a high priority for an institution unable to find space and staff to teach younger children aged five to sixteen. With the baby boom, the focus of educators and of laymen interested in education inevitably turned toward the lower grades and back to basic academic skills and discipline. The system no longer had much interest in offering nontraditional, new, and extra services to older youths.

29 Telecommuting

Telecommuting-- substituting the computer for the trip to the job ----has been hailed as a solution to all kinds of problems related to office work.

For workers it promises freedom from the office, less time wasted in traffic, and help with child-care conflicts. For management, telecommuting helps keep high performers on board, minimizes tardiness and absenteeism by eliminating commutes, allows periods of solitude for high-concentration tasks, and provides scheduling flexibility. In some areas, such as Southern California and Seattle, Washington, local governments are encouraging companies to start telecommuting programs in order to reduce rush-hour congestion and improve air quality.

But these benefits do not come easily. Making a telecommuting program work requires careful planning and an understanding of the differences between telecommuting realities and popular images.

Many workers are seduced by rosy illusions of life as a telecommuter. A computer programmer from New York City moves to the tranquil Adirondack Mountains and stays in contact with her office via computer. A manager comes in to his office three days a week and works at home the other two. An accountant stays home to care for her sick child; she hooks up her telephone modern connections and does office work between calls to the doctor.

These are powerful images, but they are a limited reflection of reality. Telecommuting workers soon learn that it is almost impossible to concentrate on work and care for a young child at the same time. Before a certain age, young children cannot recognize, much less respect, the necessary boundaries between work and family. Additional child support is necessary if the parent is to get any work done.

Management too must separate the myth from the reality. Although the media has paid a great deal of attention to telecommuting in most cases it is the employee’s situation, not the availability of technology that precipitates a telecommuting arrangement.

That is partly why, despite the widespread press coverage, the number of companies with work-at-home programs or policy guidelines remains small.

30 The origin of Refrigerators

By the mid-nineteenth century, the term“icebox”had entered the American language, but ice was still only beginning to affect the diet of ordinary citizens in the United States. The ice trade grew with the growth of cities. Ice was used in hotels, taverns, and hospitals, and by some forward-looking city dealers in fresh meat, fresh fish, and butter. After the Civil War( 1861-1865),as ice was used to refrigerate freight cars, it also came into household use. Even before 1880,half of the ice sold in New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, and one-third of that sold in Boston and Chicago, went to families for their own use. This had become possible because a new household convenience, the icebox, a precursor of the modern refrigerator, had been invented.

Making an efficient icebox was not as easy as we might now suppose. In the early nineteenth century, the knowledge of the physics of heat, which was essential to a science of refrigeration, was rudimentary. The commonsense notion that the best icebox was one that prevented the ice from melting was of course mistaken, for it was the melting of the ice that performed the cooling. Nevertheless, early efforts to economize ice included wrapping up the ice in blankets, which kept the ice from doing its job. Not until near the end of the nineteenth century did inventors achieve the delicate balance of insulation and circulation needed for an efficient icebox.

But as early as 1803, and ingenious Maryland farmer, Thomas Moore, had been on the right track. He owned a farm about twenty miles outside the city of Washington, for which the village of Georgetown was the market center. When he used an icebox of his own design to transport his butter to market, he found that customers would pass up the rapidly melting stuff in the tubs of his competitors to pay a premium price for his butter, still fresh and hard in neat, one-pound bricks. One advantage of his icebox, Moore explained, was that farmers would no longer have to travel to market at night in order to keep their produce cool.

31 British Columbia

British Columbia is the third largest Canadian provinces, both in area and population. It is nearly 1.5 times as large as Texas, and extends 800 miles(1,280km) north from the United States border. It includes Canada’s entire west coast and the islands just off the coast.

Most of British Columbia is mountainous, with long rugged ranges running north and south. Even the coastal islands are the remains of a mountain range that existed thousands of years ago. During the last Ice Age, this range was scoured by glaciers until most of it was beneath the sea. Its peaks now show as islands scattered along the coast.

The southwestern coastal region has a humid mild marine climate. Sea winds that blow inland from the west are warmed by a current of warm water that flows through the Pacific Ocean. As a result, winter temperatures average above freezing and summers are mild. These warm western winds also carry moisture from the ocean.

Inland from the coast, the winds from the Pacific meet the mountain barriers of the coastal ranges and the Rocky Mountains. As they rise to cross the mountains, the winds are cooled, and their moisture begins to fall as rain. On some of the western slopes almost 200 inches (500cm) of rain fall each year.

More than half of British Columbia is heavily forested. On mountain slopes that receive plentiful rainfall, huge Douglas firs rise in towering columns. These forest giants often grow to be as much as 300 feet(90m) tall, with diameters up to 10 feet(3m). More lumber is produced from these trees than from any other kind of tree in North America. Hemlock, red cedar, and balsam fir are among the other trees found in British Columbia.

32 Botany

Botany, the study of plants, occupies a peculiar position in the history of human knowledge. For many thousands of years it was the one field of awareness about which humans had anything more than the vaguest of insights. It is impossible to know today just what our Stone Age ancestors knew about plants, but form what we can observe of pre-industrial societies that still exist a detailed learning of plants and their properties must be extremely ancient. This is logical. Plants are the basis of the food pyramid for all living things even for other plants. They have always been enormously important to the welfare of people not only for food, but also for clothing, weapons, tools, dyes, medicines, shelter, and a great many other purposes. Tribes living today in the jungles of the Amazon recognize literally hundreds of plants and know many properties of each. To them, botany, as such, has no name and is probably not even recognized as a special branch of“knowledge”at all.

Unfortunately, the more industrialized we become the farther away we move from direct contact with plants, and the less distinct our knowledge of botany grows. Yet everyone comes unconsciously on an amazing amount of botanical knowledge, and few people will fail to recognize a rose, an apple, or an orchid. When our Neolithic ancestors, living in the Middle East about 10,000 years ago, discovered that certain grasses could be harvested and their seeds planted for richer yields the next season the first great step in a new association of plants and humans was taken. Grains were discovered and from them flowed the marvel of agriculture: cultivated crops. From then on, humans would increasingly take their living from the controlled production of a few plants, rather than getting a little here and a little there from many varieties that grew wild- and the accumulated knowledge of tens of thousands of years of experience and intimacy with plants in the wild would begin to fade away.

33 Plankton【浮游生物. / 'plжηktэn; `plжηktэn/】

Scattered through the seas of the world are billions of tons of small plants and animals called plankton. Most of these plants and animals are too small for the human eye to see. They drift about lazily with the currents, providing a basic food for many larger animals.

Plankton has been described as the equivalent of the grasses that grow on the dry land continents, and the comparison is an appropriate one. In potential food value, however, plankton far outweighs that of the land grasses. One scientist has estimated that while grasses of the world produce about 49 billion tons of valuable carbohydrates each year, the sea’s plankton generates more than twice as much.

Despite its enormous food potential, little effect was made until recently to farm plankton as we farm grasses on land. Now marine scientists have at last begun to study this possibility, especially as the sea’s resources loom even more important as a means of feeding an expanding world population.

No one yet has seriously suggested that“plankton-burgers”may soon become popular around the world. As a possible farmed supplementary food source, however, plankton is gaining considerable interest among marine scientists.

One type of plankton that seems to have great harvest possibilities is a tiny shrimp-like creature called krill. Growing to two or three inches long, krill provides the major food for the great blue whale, the largest animal to ever inhabit the Earth. Realizing that this whale may grow to 100 feet and weigh 150 tons at maturity, it is not surprising that each one devours more than one ton of krill daily.

34 Raising Oysters

In the oysters were raised in much the same way as dirt farmers raised tomatoes- by transplanting them. First, farmers selected the oyster bed, cleared the bottom of old shells and other debris, then scattered clean shells about. Next, they”planted”fertilized oyster eggs, which within two or three weeks hatched into larvae. The larvae drifted until they attached themselves to the clean shells on the bottom. There they remained and in time grew into baby oysters called seed or spat. The spat grew larger by drawing in seawater from which they derived microscopic particles of food. Before long, farmers gathered the baby oysters, transplanted them once more into another body of water to fatten them up.

Until recently the supply of wild oysters and those crudely farmed were more than enough to satisfy people’s needs. But today the delectable seafood is no longer available in abundance. The problem has become so serious that some oyster beds have vanished entirely.

Fortunately, as far back as the early 1900’s marine biologists realized that if new measures were not taken, oysters would become extinct or at best a luxury food. So they set up well-equipped hatcheries and went to work. But they did not have the proper equipment or the skill to handle the eggs. They did not know when, what, and how to feed the larvae. And they knew little about the predators that attack and eat baby oysters by the millions. They failed, but they doggedly kept at it. Finally, in the 1940’s a significant breakthrough was made.

The marine biologists discovered that by raising the temperature of the water, they could induce oysters to spawn not only in the summer but also in the fall, winter, and spring. Later they developed a technique for feeding the larvae and rearing them to spat. Going still further, they succeeded in breeding new strains that were resistant to diseases, grew faster and larger, and flourished in water of different salinities and temperatures. In addition, the cultivated oysters tasted better!

35. Oil Refining

An important new industry, oil refining, grew after the Civil war. Crude oil, or petroleum–a dark, thick ooze from the earth–had been known for hundreds of years, but little use had ever been made of it. In the 1850’s Samuel M. Kier, a manufacturer in western Pennsylvania, began collecting the oil from local seepages and refining it into kerosene. Refining, like smelting, is a process of removing impurities from a raw material.

Kerosene was used to light lamps. It was a cheap substitute for whale oil, which was becoming harder to get. Soon there was a large demand for kerosene. People began to search for new supplies of petroleum.

The first oil well was drilled by E.L. Drake, a retired railroad conductor. In 1859 he began drilling in Titusville, Pennsylvania. The whole venture seemed so impractical and foolish that onlookers called it“Drake’s Folly”. But when he had drilled down about 70 feet(21 meters), Drake struck oil. His well began to yield 20 barrels of crude oil a day.

News of Drake’s success brought oil prospectors to the scene. By the early 1860’s these wildcatters were drilling for“black gold”all over western Pennsylvania. The boom rivaled the California gold rush of 1848 in its excitement and Wild West atmosphere. And it brought far more wealth to the prospectors than any gold rush.

Crude oil could be refined into many products. For some years kerosene continued to be the principal one. It was sold in grocery stores and door-to-door. In the 1880’s refiners learned how to make other petroleum products such as waxes and lubricating oils. Petroleum was not then used to make gasoline or heating oil.

36. Plate Tectonics and Sea-floor Spreading

The theory of plate tectonics describes the motions of the lithosphere, the comparatively rigid outer layer of the Earth that includes all the crust and part of the underlying mantle. The lithosphere(n.[地]岩石圈)is divided into a few dozen plates of various sizes and shapes, in general the plates are in motion with respect to one another. A mid-ocean ridge is a boundary between plates where new lithospheric material is injected from below. As the plates diverge from a mid-ocean ridge they slide on a more yielding layer at the base of the lithosphere.

Since the size of the Earth is essentially constant, new lithosphere can be created at the mid-ocean ridges only if an equal amount of lithospheric material is consumed elsewhere. The site of this destruction is another kind of plate boundary: a subduction zone. There one plate dives under the edge of another and is reincorporated into the mantle. Both kinds of plate boundary are associated with fault systems, earthquakes and volcanism, but the kinds of geologic activity observed at the two boundaries are quite different.

The idea of sea-floor spreading actually preceded the theory of plate tectonics. In its original version, in the early 1960’s, it described the creation and destruction of the ocean floor, but it did not specify rigid lithospheric plates. The hypothesis was substantiated soon afterward by the discovery that periodic reversals of the Earth’s magnetic field are recorded in the oceanic crust. As magma rises under the mid-ocean ridge, ferromagnetic minerals in the magma become magnetized in the direction of the magma become magnetized in the direction of the geomagnetic field. When the magma cools and solidifies, the direction and the polarity of the field are preserved in the magnetized volcanic rock. Reversals of the field give rise to a series of magnetic stripes running parallel to the axis of the rift. The oceanic crust thus serves as a magnetic tape recording of the history of the geomagnetic field that can be dated independently; the width of the stripes indicates the rate of the sea-floor spreading.

37. Icebergs

Icebergs are among nature’s most spectacular creations, and yet most people have never seen one. A vague air of mystery envelops them. They come into being ----- somewhere ------in faraway, frigid waters, amid thunderous noise and splashing turbulence, which in most cases no one hears or sees. They exist only a short time and then slowly waste away just as unnoticed.

Objects of sheerest beauty they have been called. Appearing in an endless variety of shapes, they may be dazzlingly white, or they may be glassy blue, green or purple, tinted faintly of in darker hues. They are graceful, stately, inspiring ----- in calm, sunlight seas.

But they are also called frightening and dangerous, and that they are ---- in the night, in the fog, and in storms. Even in clear weather one is wise to stay a safe distance away from them. Most of their bulk is hidden below the water, so their underwater parts may extend out far beyond the visible top. Also, they may roll over unexpectedly, churning the waters around them.

Icebergs are parts of glaciers that break off, drift into the water, float about awhile, and finally melt. Icebergs afloat today are made of snowflakes that have fallen over long ages of time. They embody snows that drifted down hundreds, or many thousands, or in some cases maybe a million years ago. The snows fell in polar regions and on cold mountains, where they melted only a little or not at all, and so collected to great depths over the years and centuries.

As each year’s snow accumulation lay on the surface, evaporation and melting caused the snowflakes slowly to lose their feathery points and become tiny grains of ice. When new snow fell on top of the old, it too turned to icy grains. So blankets of snow and ice grains mounted layer upon layer and were of such great thickness that the weight of the upper layers compressed the lower ones. With time and pressure from above, the many small ice grains joined and changed to larger crystals, and eventually the deeper crystals merged into a solid mass of ice.

38. Topaz

Topaz is a hard, transparent mineral. It is a compound of aluminum, silica, and fluorine. Gem topaz is valuable. Jewelers call this variety of the stone“precious topaz”. The best-known precious topaz gems range in color from rich yellow to light brown or pinkish red. Topaz is one of the hardest gem minerals. In the mineral table of hardness, it has a rating of 8, which means that a knife cannot cut it, and that topaz will scratch quartz.

The golden variety of precious topaz is quite uncommon. Most of the world’s topaz is white or blue. The white and blue crystals of topaz are large, often weighing thousands of carats. For this reason, the value of topaz does not depend so much on its size as it does with diamonds and many other precious stones, where the value increases about four times with each doubling of weight. The value of a topaz is largely determined by its quality. But color is also important: blue topaz, for instance, is often irradiated to deepen and improve its color.

Blue topaz is often sold as aquamarine and a variety of brown quartz is widely sold as topaz. The quartz is much less brilliant and more plentiful than true topaz. Most of it is variety of amethyst: that heat has turned brown.

NOTE:

topaz / 'tэupжz; `topжz/ n (a) [U] transparent yellow mineral黄玉(矿物).

(b) [C] semi-precious gem cut from this黄玉;黄宝石.

39. The Salinity of Ocean Waters

If the salinity of ocean waters is analyzed, it is found to vary only slightly from place to place. Nevertheless, some of these small changes are important. There are three basic processes that cause a change in oceanic salinity. One of these is the subtraction of water from the ocean by means of evaporation--- conversion of liquid water to water vapor. In this manner the salinity is increased, since the salts stay behind. If this is carried to the extreme, of course, white crystals of salt would be left behind.

The opposite of evaporation is precipitation, such as rain, by which water is added to the ocean. Here the ocean is being diluted so that the salinity is decreased. This may occur in areas of high rainfall or in coastal regions where rivers flow into the ocean. Thus salinity may be increased by the subtraction of water by evaporation, or decreased by the addition of fresh water by precipitation or runoff.

Normally, in tropical regions where the sun is very strong, the ocean salinity is somewhat higher than it is in other parts of the world where there is not as much evaporation. Similarly, in coastal regions where rivers dilute the sea, salinity is somewhat lower than in other oceanic areas.

A third process by which salinity may be altered is associated with the formation and melting of sea ice. When sea water is frozen, the dissolved materials are left behind. In this manner, sea water directly materials are left behind. In this manner, sea water directly beneath freshly formed sea ice has a higher salinity than it did before the ice appeared. Of course, when this ice melts, it will tend to decrease the salinity of the surrounding water.

In the Weddell Sea Antarctica, the densest water in the oceans is formed as a result of this freezing process, which increases the salinity of cold water. This heavy water sinks and is found in the deeper portions of the oceans of the world.

NOTE:

salinity / sэ'linэti; sэ`linэti/

n [U] the high salinity of sea water海水的高含盐量.

à->>saline / 'seilain; US -li:n; `selin/

1.adj [attrib作定语] (fml文) containing salt; salty含盐的;咸的:

* a saline lake盐湖* saline springs盐泉

* saline solution, eg as used for gargling, storing contact lenses, etc盐溶液(如用于漱喉、存放隐形眼镜等).

2. n [U] (medical医) solution of salt and water盐水.

40. Cohesion-tension Theory

Atmospheric pressure can support a column of water up to 10 meters high. But plants can move water much higher; the sequoia tree can pump water to its very top more than 100 meters above the ground. Until the end of the nineteenth century, the movement of water in trees and other tall plants was a mystery. Some botanists hypothesized that the living cells of plants acted as pumps. But many experiments demonstrated that the stems of plants in which all the cells are killed can still move water to appreciable heights. Other explanations for the movement of water in plants have been based on root pressure, a push on the water from the roots at the bottom of the plant. But root pressure is not nearly great enough to push water to the tops of tall trees. Furthermore, the conifers, which are among the tallest trees, have unusually low root pressures.

If water is not pumped to the top of a tall tree, and if it is not pushed to the top of a tall tree, then we may ask: how does it get there? According to the currently accepted cohesion-tension theory, water is pulled there. The pull on a rising column of water in a plant results from the evaporation of water at the top of the plant. As water is lost from the surface of the leaves, a negative pressure, or tension, is created. The evaporated water is replaced by water moving from inside the plant in unbroken columns that extend from the top of a plant to its roots. The same forces that create surface tension in any sample of water are responsible for the maintenance of these unbroken columns of water. When water is confined in tubes of very small bore, the forces of cohesion (the attraction between water molecules) are so great that the strength of a column of water compares with the strength of a steel wire of the same diameter. This cohesive strength permits columns of water to be pulled to great heights without being broken.

41. American black bears

American black bears appear in a variety of colors despite their name. In the eastern part of their range, most of these brown, red, or even yellow coats. To the north, the black bear is actually gray or white in color. Even in the same litter, both brown and black furred bears may be born.

Black bears are the smallest of all American bears, ranging in length from five to six feet, weighing from three hundred to five hundred pounds Their eyes and ears are small and their eyesight and hearing are not as good as their sense of smell.

Like all bears, the black bear is timid, clumsy, and rarely dangerous , but if attacked, most can climb trees and cover ground at great speeds. When angry or frightened, it is a formidable enemy.

Black bears feed on leaves, herbs. Fruit, berries, insects, fish, and even larger animals. One of the most interesting characteristics of bears, including the black bear, is their winter sleep. Unlike squirrels, woodchucks, and many other woodland animals, bears do not actually hibernate. Although the bear does not during the winter moths, sustaining itself from body fat, its temperature remains almost normal, and it breathes regularly four or five times per minute.

Most black bears live alone, except during mating season. They prefer to live in caves, hollow logs, or dense thickets. A little of one to four cubs is born in January or February after a gestation period of six to nine months, and they remain with their mother until they are fully grown or about one and a half years old. Black bears can live as long as thirty years in the wild , and even longer in game preserves set aside for them.

42. Coal-fired power plants

The invention of the incandescent light bulb by Thomas A. Edison in 1879 created a demand for a cheap, readily available fuel with which to generate large amounts of electric power. Coal seemed to fit the bill, and it fueled the earliest power stations. (which were set up at the end of the nineteenth century by Edison himself). As more power plants were constructed throughout the country, the reliance on coal increased throughout the country, the reliance on coal increased. Since the First World War, coal-fired power plants had a combined in the United States each year. In 1986 such plants had a combined generating capacity of 289,000 megawatts and consumed 83 percent of the nearly 900 million tons of coal mined in the country that year. Given the uncertainty in the future growth of the nearly 900 million tons of coal mined in the country that year. Given the uncertainty in the future growth of nuclear power and in the supply of oil and natural gas, coal-fired power plants could well provide up to 70 percent of the electric power in the United States by the end of the century.

Yet, in spite of the fact that coal has long been a source of electricity and may remain on for many years(coal represents about 80 percent of United States fossil-fuel reserves), it has actually never been the most desirable fossil fuel for power plants. Coal contains less energy per unit of weight than weight than natural gas or oil; it is difficult to transport, and it is associated with a host of environmental issues, among them acid rain. Since the late 1960’s problems of emission control and waste disposal have sharply reduced the appeal of coal-fired power plants. The cost of ameliorating these environment problems along with the rising cost of building a facility as large and complex as a coal-fired power plant, have also made such plants less attractive from a purely economic perspective.

Changes in the technological base of coal-fired power plants could restore their attractiveness, however. Whereas some of these changes are intended mainly to increase the productivity of existing plants, completely new technologies for burning coal cleanly are also being developed.

43. Statistics

There were two widely divergent influences on the early development of statistical methods. Statistics had a mother who was dedicated to keeping orderly records of government units (states and statistics come from the same Latin root status) and a gentlemanly gambling father who relied on mathematics to increase his skill at playing the odds in games of chance. The influence of the mother on the offspring, statistics, is represented by counting, measuring, describing, tabulating, ordering, and the taking of censuses—all of which led to modern descriptive statistics. From the influence of the father came modern inferential statistics, which is based squarely on theories of probability.

Describing collections involves tabulating, depicting and describing collections of data. These data may be quantitative such as measures of height, intelligence or grade level------variables that are characterized by an underlying continuum---or the data may represent qualitative variables, such as sex, college major or personality type. Large masses of data must generally undergo a process of summarization or reduction before they are comprehensible. Descriptive statistics is a tool for describing or summarizing or reducing to comprehensible form the properties of an otherwise unwieldy mass of data.

Inferential statistics is a formalized body of methods for solving another class of problems that present great of problems characteristically involves attempts to make predictions using a sample of observations. For example, a school superintendent wishes to determine the proportion of children in a large school system who come to school without breakfast, have been vaccinated for flu, or whatever. Having a little knowledge of statistics, the superintendent would know that it is unnecessary and inefficient to question each child: the proportion for the sample of as few as 100 children. Thus , the purpose of inferential statistics is to predict or estimate characteristics of a population from a knowledge of the characteristics of only a sample of the population.

44. Obtaining Fresh water from icebergs

The concept of obtaining fresh water from icebergs that are towed to populated areas and arid regions of the world was once treated as a joke more appropriate to cartoons than real life. But now it is being considered quite seriously by many nations, especially since scientists have warned that the human race will outgrow its fresh water supply faster than it runs out of food.

Glaciers are a possible source of fresh water that has been overlooked until recently. Three-quarters of the Earth’s fresh water supply is still tied up in glacial ice, a reservoir of untapped fresh water so immense that it could sustain all the rivers of the world for 1,000 years. Floating on the oceans every year are 7,659 trillion metric tons of ice encased in 10000 icebergs that break away from the polar ice caps, more than ninety percent of them from Antarctica.

Huge glaciers that stretch over the shallow continental shelf give birth to icebergs throughout the year. Icebergs are not like sea ice, which is formed when the sea itself freezes, rather, they are formed entirely on land, breaking off when glaciers spread over the sea. As they drift away from the polar region, icebergs sometimes move mysteriously in a direction opposite to the wind, pulled by subsurface currents. Because they melt more slowly than smaller pieces of ice, icebergs have been known to drift as far north as 35 degrees south of the equator in the Atlantic Ocean. To corral them and steer them to parts of the world where they are needed would not be too difficult.

The difficulty arises in other technical matters, such as the prevention of rapid melting in warmer climates and the funneling of fresh water to shore in great volume. But even if the icebergs lost half of their volume in towing, the water they could provide would be far cheaper than that produced by desalinization, or removing salt from water.

45. The source of Energy

A summary of the physical and chemical nature of life must begin, not on the Earth, but in the Sun; in fact, at the Sun’s very center. It is here that is to be found the source of the energy that the Sun constantly pours out into space as light and heat. This energy is librated at the center of the Sun as billions upon billions of nuclei of hydrogen atoms collide with each other and fuse together to form nuclei of helium, and in doing so, release some of the energy that is stored in the nuclei of atoms. The output of light and heat of the Sun requires that some 600 million tons of hydrogen be converted into helium in the Sun every second. This the Sun has been doing for several thousands of millions of year.

The nuclear energy is released at the Sun’s center as high-energy gamma radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation like light and radio waves, only of very much shorter wavelength. This gamma radiation is absorbed by atoms inside the Sun to be reemitted at slightly longer wavelengths. This radiation , in its turn is absorbed and reemitted. As the energy filters through the layers of the solar interior, it passes through the X-ray part of the spectrum eventually becoming light. At this stage, it has reached what we call the solar surface, and can escape into space without being absorbed further by solar atoms. A very small fraction of the Sun’s light and heat is emitted in such directions that after passing unhindered through interplanetary space, it hits the Earth.

46. Vision

Human vision like that of other primates has evolved in an arboreal environment. In the dense complex world of a tropical forest, it is more important to see well that to develop an acute sense of smell. In the course of evolution members of the primate line have acquired large eyes while the snout has shrunk to give the eye an unimpeded view. Of mammals only humans and some primates enjoy color vision. The red flag is black to the bull. Horses live in a monochrome world .light visible to human eyes however occupies only a very narrow band in the whole electromagnetic spectrum. Ultraviolet rays are invisible to humans though ants and honeybees are sensitive to them. Humans though ants and honeybees are sensitive to them. Humans have no direct perception of infrared rays unlike the rattlesnake which has receptors tuned into wavelengths longer than 0.7 micron. The world would look eerily different if human eyes were sensitive to infrared radiation. Then instead of the darkness of night, we would be able to move easily in a strange shadowless world where objects glowed with varying degrees of intensity. But human eyes excel in other ways. They are in fact remarkably discerning in color gradation. The color sensitivity of normal human vision is rarely surpassed even by sophisticated technical devices.

47. Folk Cultures

A folk culture is a small isolated, cohesive, conservative, nearly self-sufficient group that is homogeneous in custom and race with a strong family or clan structure and highly developed rituals. Order is maintained through sanctions based in the religion or family and interpersonal. Relationships are strong. Tradition is paramount, and change comes infrequently and slowly. There is relatively little division of labor into specialized duties. Rather, each person is expected to perform a great variety of tasks, though duties may differ between the sexes. Most goods are handmade and subsistence economy prevails. Individualism is weakly developed in folk cultures as are social classes. Unaltered folk cultures no longer exist in industrialized countries such as the United States and Canada. Perhaps the nearest modern equivalent in Anglo America is the Amish, a German American farming sect that largely renounces the products and labor saving devices of the industrial age. In Amish areas, horse drawn buggies still serve as a local transportation device and the faithful are not permitted to own automobiles. The Amish’s central religious concept of Demut“humility”, clearly reflects the weakness of individualism and social class so typical of folk cultures and there is a corresponding strength of Amish group identity. Rarely do the Amish marry outside their sect. The religion, a variety of the Mennonite faith, provides the principal mechanism for maintaining order.

By contrast a popular culture is a large heterogeneous group often highly individualistic and a pronounced many specialized professions. Secular institutions of control such as the police and army take the place of religion and family in maintaining order, and a money-based economy prevails. Because of these contrasts,“popular”may be viewed as clearly different from“folk”. The popular is replacing the folk in industrialized countries and in many developing nations. Folk-made objects give way to their popular equivalent, usually because the popular item is more quickly or cheaply produced, is easier or time saving to use or leads more prestige to the owner.

48. Bacteria

Bacteria are extremely small living things. While we measure our own sizes in inches or centimeters, bacterial size is measured in microns. One micron is a thousandth of a millimeter: a pinhead is about a millimeter across. Rod-shaped bacteria are usually from two to four microns long, while rounded ones are generally one micron in diameter. Thus if you enlarged a rounded bacterium a thousand times, it would be just about the size of a pinhead. An adult human magnified by the same amount would be over a mile(1.6 kilometer) tall.

Even with an ordinary microscope, you must look closely to see bacteria. Using a magnification of 100 times, one finds that bacteria are barely visible as tiny rods or dots. One cannot make out anything of their structure. Using special stains, one can see that some bacteria have attached to them wavy-looking“hairs”called flagella. Others have only one flagellum. The flagella rotate, pushing the bacteria through the water. Many bacteria lack flagella and cannot move about by their own power, while others can glide along over surfaces by some little-understood mechanism.

From the bacteria point of view, the world is a very different place from what it is to humans. To a bacterium water is as thick as molasses is to us. Bacteria are so small that they are influenced by the movements of the chemical molecules around them. Bacteria under the microscope, even those with no flagella, often bounce about in the water. This is because they collide with the watery molecules and are pushed this way and that. Molecules move so rapidly that within a tenth of a second the molecules around a bacteria have all been replaced by new ones; even bacteria without flagella are thus constantly exposed to a changing environment.

49. Sleep

Sleet is part of a person’s daily activity cycle. There are several different stages of sleep, and they too occur in cycles. If you are an average sleeper, your sleep cycle is as follows. When you fist drift off into slumber, your eyes will roll about a bit, you temperature will drop slightly, your muscles will relax, and your breathing well slow and become quite regular. Your brain waves slow and become quite regular. Your brain waves slow down a bit too, with the alpha rhythm of rather fast waves 1 sleep. For the next half hour or so, as you relax more and more, you will drift down through stage 2 and stage 3 sleep. The lower your stage of sleep. slower your brain waves will be. Then about 40to 69 minutes after you lose consciousness you will have reached the deepest sleep of all. Your brain will show the large slow waves that are known as the delta rhythm. This is stage 4 sleep.

You do not remain at this deep fourth stage all night long, but instead about 80 minutes after you fall into slumber, your brain activity level will increase again slightly. The delta rhythm will disappear, to be replaced by the activity pattern of brain waves. Your eyes will begin to dart around under your closed eyelids as if you were looking at something occurring in front of you. This period of rapid eye movement lasts for some 8 to 15 minutes and is called REM sleep. It is during REM sleep period, your body will soon relax again, your breathing will slip gently back from stage 1 to stage 4 sleep----only to rise once again to the surface of near consciousness some 80 minutes later.

50. Cells and Temperature

Cells cannot remain alive outside certain limits of temperature and much narrower limits mark the boundaries of effective functioning. Enzyme systems of mammals and birds are most efficient only within a narrow range around 37C;a departure of a few degrees from this value seriously impairs their functioning. Even though cells can survive wider fluctuations the integrated actions of bodily systems are impaired. Other animals have a wider tolerance for changes of bodily temperature.

For centuries it has been recognized that mammals and birds differ from other animals in the way they regulate body temperature. Ways of characterizing the difference have become more accurate and meaningful over time, but popular terminology still reflects the old division into“warm-blooded”and“cold-blooded”species; warm-blooded included mammals and birds whereas all other creatures were considered cold-blooded. As more species were studied, it became evident that this classification was inadequate. A fence lizard or a desert iguana—each cold-blooded----usually has a body temperature only a degree or two below that of humans and so is not cold. Therefore the next distinction was made between animals that maintain a constant body temperature, called home0therms, and those whose body temperature varies with their environments, called poikilotherms. But this classification also proved inadequate, because among mammals there are many that vary their body temperatures during hibernation. Furthermore, many invertebrates that live in the depths of the ocean never experience change in the depths of the ocean never experience change in the chill of the deep water, and their body temperatures remain constant.