Remember what should be remembered, and forget what should be forgotten. Alter what is changeable, and accept what is mutable.
Apart from tears, only time could wear everything away. While feeling is being processed by time, conflicts would be reconciled as time goes by, just like a cup of tea that is being continuously diluted.
Complaints are the greatest offerings that God obtains from human beings, as well as the most faithful prayers human beings might utter to God.
Wisdom appears in contradiction to itself, which is a trick life plays on philosophy of life.
Girls always look on themselves as proud princesses, with the exception of a small number of either extremely ugly or exceedingly smart ones.
It can be inferred that you lack confidence in a victory over your rivals from the fact that you’re irritable against them.
From that you would get angry with your friends, we can conclude you sitll care about the friendship between you.
“ Something is out of our control, so we have to command ourselves.“ said Linghu Chong, a known character in a Chinese novel about persons adept in martial arts(武侠小说？）. Who is, however, fucking he?
Only till my natural death. could I tell which of what I have been doing is right or wrong, so now I have to try to do well in everything, and then wait to die a natural death.
Some may be wicked, and some may be despicable. Only when I put myself in their position did I know they are more miserable than I. So forgive all that you have met, no matter what kind of persons they are.
“You couldn’t see my tears cause I am in the water.“ Fish said to water.
“But I could feel your tears cause you are in me.“ Answered water.
Happiness is accompanied by sorrow, and it would turn sunny after rain as well. If rain remains after rain and sorrow remains after sorrow, please take those farewells easy, and turn to smilingly look for yourself who is never to appear.
Like the outcome after an exam, death makes us aware of anything, That is, it’s too late to take a tumble.
When you were born, you’re crying but lookers-on were smiling. When you are passing away, you’re smiling but lookers-on are crying.
Man might think that few women fit him before his marriage, and contrarily when they get married.
Among thousands of people, you meet those you’ve met. Through thousands of years, with the boundlessness of time, you happen to meet them, neither earlier nor a bit too late.
Everyone has his inherent ability( power or capacity?) which is easily concealed by habbits, blured by time, and eroded by laziness( or inertia?).
Be sure that you have never had any regrets in your life which only lasts for a few decades. Laugh or cry as you like, and it‘s meaningless to oppress yourself.
While our dream is confronted with the reality, you always feel painful. Just trample on the pain, or you‘ll be beat down by it.
A true love is what doesn‘t strive for busyness, for extravagance, for luxury, and moreover for hokum.
There is someone that is coming or passing away in your life around the clock, so you may lose sight of those seen, and forget those remembered. There is gain and loss in your life, so you may catch sight of those unseen, and remember those forgotten. Nevertheless, doesn‘t the unseen exist for sure? Will the remembered remain for ever?
It‘s true that we have been leading a difficult life, for we need not only to be under various external pressures, but also to be in the face of internal perplexities. You would be affected by the warmth of life if someone gives you an understanding look during your bitter struggle. Even a mere glance would make you moved and inspired.
I wouldn‘t care success or failure, for I will only struggle ahead as long as I have been destined to the distance. I wouldn‘t care the difficulties around, for what I can leave on the earth is only their view of my back since I have been marching toward the horizontal.
Penitence is something that enervates our spirit, causing a greater loss than loss itself and making a bigger mistake than mistake itself, so never regret.
1.Divine‘s punishments，though slow，are always sure.
2.An act is not a crime unless the law says it is one.
3.This contract is made of one original and two duplicate originals，all of which are of the same effect.
4. The law does not concern itself about family trifles.
5.This document is legally binding.
6. This law is in abeyance.
7. This law has become a dead letter.
8. This law will go into effect on the day of its promulgation.
9 The court dismissed the action.
10. The court ordered the case to be retried.
11.Giving the killer what he deserves.
12. Hate the sin but not the sinner.
13.Everyone has the right to freedom of expression.
14. Everyone is equal before the law.
15. First in time，first in right.
16. No rights can rest on one person without a corresponding duty resting on some other person or persons.
17. In most civil contexts it does not matter whether negligence is“gross”or“slight”。
18. Traditionally，firm referred to a partnership，as opposed to a company.
19.A transaction between two parties ought not to operate to the disadvantage of a third.
20. An acceptance once given cannot be revoked unless the offeror consents.
21. A contract may be modified if the parties reach a consensus through consultation.
22. Any amendments to this contract shall become effective only by a written agreement by Party A and Party B.
23. Any annex is the integral part of this contract.
24. Any departure from the terms and conditions of the contract must be advised in writing.
25. Any failure by a party to carry out all or part of his obligations under the contract shall be considered as a substantial breach.
26. Any party has no right to terminate this contract without another party‘s agreement.
27.Examples of void contracts are those entered as a result of misrepresentation，duress or undue influence.
28. If any of the above-mentioned clauses is inconsistent with the following additional clauses，the latter to be taken as authentic.
29. If there are provisions as otherwise stated in respect to contracts in other laws，such provisions shall be followed.
30.No consideration，no contract.
31. Other special terms will be listed bellows.
32. Party A and B have reached an agreement through friendly consultation to conclude the following contract.
33. Parties hereto may revise or supplement through negotiation matters not mentioned herein.
34. The parties may dissolve the contract upon consensus through consultation.
35. Counsel must not lead the witness.
36. The jury returned a verdict of guilty，and the judge will pass sentence next week.
37. The jury was unable to reach a unanimous decision.
38.Judgment was entered for the plaintiff.
39. Now the court is in session.
40. Order in the court.
41. objection -反对objection overruled——反对驳回
Virtue is like a rich stone, best plain set; and surely virtue is best in a body that is comely, though not of delicate features; and that hath rather dignity of presence than beauty of aspect. Neither is it almost seen, that very beautiful persons are otherwise of great virtue; as if nature were rather busy not to err, than in labor to produce excellency. And therefore they prove accomplished, but not of great spirit; and study rather behavior than virtue.
But this holds not always: for Augustus Caesar, Titus Vespasianus, Philip le Bel of France, Edward the Fourth of England, Alicibiades of Athens, Ismael the Sophy of Persia, were all high and great spirits; and yet the most beautiful men of their times. In beauty, that of favor is more than of color; and that of decent and gracious motion more than that of favor. That is the best part of beauty, which a picture cannot express; no nor the first sight of the life. There is no excellent beauty that hath not some strangeness in the proportion. A man cannot tell whether Apelles or Albert Durer were the more trifler; whereof the one would make a personage by geometrical proportions; the other, by taking the best parts out of divers faces, to make one excellent. Such personages, I think, would please nobody but the painter that made them. Not but I think a painter may make a better face than ever was; but he must do it by a kind of felicity (as a musician that maketh as excellent air in music), and not by rule. A man shall see faces, that if you examine them part by part, you shall find never a good; and yet altogether do well. If it be true that the principal part of beauty is in decent motion, certainly it is no marvel though persons in years seem many times more amiable; pulchrorum autumnus pulcher [beautiful persons have a beautiful autumn]; for no youth can be comely but by pardon, and considering the youth as to make up the comeliness.
Beauty is as summer fruits, which are easy to corrupt, and cannot last; and for the most part it makes a dissolute youth, and an age a little out of countenance; but yet certainly again, if it light well, it make the virtue shine, and vices blush.
Rogers Chemical Supply Co. 10E.22Street Omaha8,Neb Gentlemen: We have obtained your name and address from Aristo Shoes, Milan , and we are writing to enquire whether you would be willing to establish business relations with us. We have been importers of shoes for many years. At present, We are interested in extending our, range and would appreciate your catalogues and quotations.If your prices are competitive we would expect to transact a significant volume of business. We look forward to your early reply.
Very truly yours自米兰职权里斯托鞋类公司取得贵公司和地址，特此修函，祈能发展关系。多年来，本公司经营鞋类进口生意，现欲扩展业务范围。盼能惠赐商品目录和报价表。如价格公道，本公司必大额订购。烦请早日赐复。此致
Thank your for your letter of the 16th of this month. We shall be glad to enter into business relations with your company. In compliance with your request, we are sending you, under separate cover, our latest catalogue and price list covering our export range. Payment should be made by irrevocable and confirmed letter of credit. Should you wish to place an order, please telex or fax us.本月16日收到有关商务关系的来函，不胜欣喜。谨遵要求另函奉上最新之出口商品目录和报价单。款项烦请以不可撤销保兑之信用状支付。如欲订货，请电传或传真为盼。此致敬礼
We would like to inform you that we act on a sole agency basis fora number of manufacturers. We specialize in finished cotton goods for the Middle eastern market: Our activities cover all types of household linen. Until now , we have been working with your textiles department and our collaboration has proved to be mutually beneficial. Please refer to them for any information regarding our company. We are very interested in an exclusive arrangement with your factoryfor the promotion of your products in Bahrain. We look forward to your early reply. `本公司担任多家厂家的独家代理，专营精制棉织品，包括各灯家用亚麻制品，行销中东。与贵公司向有业务联系，互利互作。贵公司纺织部亦十分了解有关业务合作之情况。盼望能成为贵公司独家代理，促销在巴林市场的货品。上述建议，烦请早日赐复，以便进一步联系合作。此致敬礼
Thank you for your letter of 1 September suggesting that we grant you a sole agency for our household linens. I regret to say that, at this stage ,such an arrangement would berather premature. We would, however, be willing to engage in a trial collaboration with you company to see how the arrangement works. It would be necessary for you to test the market for our productsat you end. You would also have to build up a much larger turnover tojustify a sole agency. We enclose price lists covering all the products you are interested in and look forward to hearing from you soon. 9月1日有关建议担任家用亚麻制品独家代理的来信收悉。谨致衷心谢意。目前时机尚未成熟，不能应允该安排深感抱歉。然而，本公司乐意与贵公司先试行合作，为今后合作打下基础。为证明担任独家代理的能力，贵公司宜上述货品作市场调查，研究是否可扩大现有之营业额。奉上该货品之报价单，敬希查照。专此候复。此致敬礼
Thank you for your letter of 12 April proposing a sole agency for our office machines. We have examined our long and ,I must say ,mutually beneficial collaboration. We would be very pleased to entrust you with the sole agency for Bahrain. From our records, we are pleased to note that you have two service engineers who took training courses at our Milan factory .the sole agency will naturally be contingent on you maintaining qualified aftersales staff. We have drawn up a draft agreement that is enclosed. Please examine the detailed terms and conditions and let us know whether they meet with your approval. On a personal note, I must say that I am delighted that we are probably going to strengthen our relationship. I have very pleasant memories of my last visit to Bahrain when you entertained me so delightfully .I look forward to reciprocating on your next visit to Milan . My very best wishes to you and your wife. 4月12日建议担任为公室器具之独家代理来信已经收悉。过去双方合作皆互利互助，能获您的眷顾作我公司于巴林的独家代理，殊感荣幸。据知您公司两服务技师曾到我公司米兰工厂受训。相信您公司在取得代理权后，仍会继续注重合格售后服务人员的训练。现随信附上协议草稿，请查实各项条款，惠复是盼。能加强业务，我亦感到欣喜，前次到访巴林，蒙盛情款待，不胜感激。祈盼您莅临米兰时，容我一尽地主之谊。此致敬礼
At the beginning of this month , I attended the Harrogate toy fair. While there , I had an interesting conversation with Mr. Douglas Gage of Edutoys plc about selecting an agency for our teaching aids. Douglas described your dynamic sales force and innovative approach to marketing. He attributed his own company's success to your excellent distribution network which has served him for several years. We need an organization like yours to launch our products in the UK. Our teaching aids cover the whole field of primary education in all subjects .Our patented ‘Matrix’ math apparatus is particularly successful. You may have reservations about American teaching aids suiting your market. This is not a problem since we have a complete range of British English versions. I enclose an illustrated catalogue of our British English editions for your information. Please let me have your reactions to the material. I shall be in London during the first two weeks of October .Perhaps we could arrange a meeting to discuss our proposal.本用初参观哈洛加特玩具交易会时有幸与教育玩具股份有限公司的道格拉斯•盖齐先生一谈，提及本公司正物色代理人推广教学器材一事。盖齐先生赞扬贵公司积极推广产品，不断推出新的推销方法，并把其公司的成就归于贵公司完善的经销网络。贵公司的经验，正能替本公司在英国经销产品。本公司生产初级教育各学科的教育器村、专利产品梅特里克教学器材更傲视同侪。除美国教学器材外，亦备有全套英式英语版教材，适合当地市场，贵公司无需忧虑切合市场需求。现附上配有插图的英式英语版教材目录，盼抽空细阅，并赐知宝贵意见。本人拟于10月头两星期前往伦敦，未知能否安排会面，就以上建议作一详谈?此致敬礼
Many thanks for your letter and enclosures of 12 September. We were very interested to hear that you are looking for an UK distributor for your teaching aids. We would like to invite you to visit our booth,no.6,at next month's London Toy Fair, at Earl's court , which starts on 2 October. If you would like to set up an appointment during non exhibit hall hours please call me. I can then arrange for our sensor staff to be present at the meeting. We look forward to hearing from you.多谢9月12日的来信和附件。获悉贵公司有意物色英国销售商推广教学辅助设备，甚感兴趣。本公司将于10月2日于厄尔大楼举行的耸敦玩具商品交易会上展示产品，诚邀贵公司派员参观设于46号之摊位。如能安排于非展出时间面谈，烦请电复。定必委派高层人员赴会。本公司深知贵公司产品精美质优，希望能发展互惠之业务。特此奉告，并候复音。
We understand from our trade contacts that your company has reestablished itself in Beirut and is once again trading successfully in your region. We would like to extend our congratulations and offer our very best wishes for your continued success. Before the war in Lebanon , our companies were involved in a large volume of trade in our textiles. We see from our records that you were among our best tem customers. We very much hope that we can resume our mutually beneficial relationship now that peace has returned to Lebanon. Since we last traded, our lines have changed beyond recognition. While they reflect current European taste in fabrics, some of our designs are specifically targeted at the Middle Eastern market. As an initial step , I enclose our illustrated catalogue for your perusal. Should you wish to receive samples for closer inspection, we will be very happy to forward them. We look forward to hearing from you.从同行中获悉贵公司贝鲁特复业，生意发展迅速。得闻喜讯，不胜欢欣。谨祝业务蒸蒸日上。黎巴嫩战事发生前双方曾有多宗纺织品交易；贵公司更是本公司十大客户之一。现今战事平息，亟盼能重展双方互惠的业务联系。自上次合作至令，产品款式变化极大。除了有迎合欧洲人口味的款式这外，亦有专门为中东市场而设计的产品。现奉上配有插图的商品目录供初步参考。职需查看样本，还望赐知。
I would like to confirm our appointment to discuss the possibility of merging our distribution networks. I am excited of the prospect ofexpanding our trade. As agreed, We will meet of our office in bond street at 9.30a.m.on Monday 20 March. I have scheduled the whole day for the meeting. If for any reason you are unable to attend , please phone me so that we can make alternative arrangements. Please let me know if you would like our office to arrange hotel accommodation. I look forward with great pleasure to our meeting.承蒙拔冗讲讨论合并双方销售网，以扩大贸易发展范围，深感兴奋。现特修函确定会议日程。谨于3月20日星期一在邦德街办公室候教，请贵公司代表于当日早上9时莅临指导。若因故未能抽空出席，烦请致电告知，以便另行安排会晤。未知是否需代为安排旅馆膳宿?请尽早赐知，以便早作准备，款待贵客。谨此预祝会谈成功。
Gillette-burns Co. 322 Gleenwood street Gleveland 5,Ohio Glentlemen: Thank you for your order no,464 of 20 september. The models you selected from our showroom went out today under my personal supervision.The package is being airfreghted to you on swissair.The relevant documentation is enclosce.I enjoyed meeting yiu and hope that this order represents the beginning of a long and prosperous relationship between oiur companies. The next time you visit us ,please let me know in advance so that I can arrange a luch for you with our derectors. Sincerely yours谢谢9月20日第464号定单。今天我已新自监督发送您自展览室挑选的产品。该产品随附有关文件经瑞士航空公司运送。很荣幸与你会面，衷心希望是次定单能加强双方的关系。下次到访前，烦请赐知，俾能安排与本公司董事共进午餐。
I enclose an illustrated supplement toour catalogue. It covers the latest designs which are now available from stock. We are most gratified that you have, for several yeas. Include a selection of our products in your mail-order catalogues. The resulting sales have been very steady. We believe that you will find our new designs most attractive. Theyshould get a very good reception in your market. Once you have had time to study the upplement , please let us know if you would like to take the matter further. We would be very happy to send samples to you for closer inspection. For your information, we are planning a range of classical English dinner services which ,should do well in the North American market. We will keep you informed on our progress and look forward to hearingfrom you.随函寄奉配有插图的商品目录附页，介绍最新设计的产品。贵公司的邮购目录多年来收录本公司产品，产品销售成绩理想，特此致以深切谢意。最新设计的产品巧夺天工，定能吸引顾客选购。烦请参阅上述附页，需查看样本，请赐复，本公司乐意交劳。本公司现正设计一系列款式古典的英国餐具，适合北美市场需求。如感兴趣，亦请赐知。愿进一步加强联系，并候复音。
Thank you for your business. You arecurrently represented in our directory. This is the only directory of its kind which reaches all companies in the building and construction industry in the UK. Advertising in our directory was a wise move on your part. We are currently compiling a new edition of the directory which willbe published in April 1995.The new edition will be expanded to include major manufacturers of plumbing equipment in the European Community. For proper coverage in the directory, you ought to appear in more than one category. If you do opt for a multiple listing, you will be ableto buy space in additional categories at half price. You can be assured that the new edition will be on the desks of allthe major decision makers in the building and hardware trades. Please complete the enclosed form and return it with the appropriate fee. Thanks again for your business.衷心感谢惠顾。贵公司商号已刊登在本公司的商贸指南中。该指南乃唯一覆盖英国全部建筑公司的刊物，在此刊登广告确是明智之举。现下筹备1998年4月版的贸易批南，新版会罗列欧洲贡同体的主要铅管业制造商。为达到出色的宣传效果，贵公司宜考虑在不同类别刊登广告。如蒙惠顾，除首个广告外，其余类别的广告将可获半价优惠。该指南将分送给所有建筑公司和五金器具公司主管。烦表填妥随附表格，连同广告费用一并寄回。专此盼候佳音。
Thank you for your letter of 2 November. We are delighted to hear that you are to pleased with the refurbishment of your hotel. As your know .in our line of work, we depend on good ,reports about our projects to win further business. Our clients always shop around and look for references before committing themselves. With your permission, we would like to use your hotel as a reference when we discuss similar refurbishments in the hotel industry . Would you agree to our suggesting that future clients should call you? It would also be most helpful if we could occasionally bring a client to look at your hotel . We would , of course , stay overnight at least.I'll call you next week to hear your reaction. Thanks again for you kind words.从11月2日的来函得悉阁下对贵饭店的整修感到满意，此消息对本公司实是一鼓励。设计行业重视声誉，客人在选择设计公司时必然会有所比较。如蒙允许，本公司欲请贵饭店作推荐人，证明有关整修的质素。未知可否让其他客户来电垂询?此外，如获允准间或联同客户前来参观贵饭店整修，定必有莫大帮助。当然，本公司会预订房间，至少留宿一晚。
We enclose our new catalogue and price list. The revised prices will apply from 1 April 1997. You will see that there have been number of changes in our product range. A number of improved models have been introduced. Out range of washing machines has been completely revamped. Many popular lines, however, have been retained unchanged. You will be aware that inflation is affecting industry as a whole .Ws have been affected like everyone else and some price increases havebeen unavoidable. We have not, however, increased our prices across the board, In many cases, there is a small price increase, but in others, none at all. We can assure you that the quality of our consumer durables has been maintained at a high standard and that our service will continueto be first class. We look forward to receiving your orders.谨谢上新的商品目录和价格表。修订价格定于1997年4月1日起生效。产品系列有一大革新，增加了不少改良的型号，扒出一系列新款的洗衣机，但许多款的开动号仍保持不变。通货膨胀影响整个工业连带令货品价格上涨。虽然如此，本公司并未全面提升价格，调整幅度亦不大。本公司坚守一贯信念，务求出产优质之耐用消费品，迎合顾客的需要。谢谢贵公司多年惠顾，盼继续合作。
I enclose our new price list , which will come into effect ,from the end of this month. You will see that we have increased our prices on most models. We have ,however , refrained from doing so on some models of which we hold large stocks. We feel we should explain why we have increased our prices. We are paying 10% more for our raw materials than we were paying last year. Some of our subcontractors have raised their by as much as 15%. As you know , we take great pride in our machines and are jealous of the reputation for quality and dependability which we have achieved over the last 40 years. We will not compromise that reputation because of rising costs. We hope, therefore decided to raise the price of some of our machines. We hope you will understand our position and look forward to your orders.现谨附上本公司新价格表，新价格将于本月底生效。除了存货充裕的商品外，其余大部分货品均已调升价格。是次调整原因是原材料价格升幅上涨10%□，一些承包商的价格调升到15%。过去40年，本公司生产的机器品质优良、性能可靠。今为确保产品质量，唯有稍为调整价格。上述情况，还望考虑。愿能与贵公司保持紧密合作。
We greatly appreciate your letter describing the assistance you received in solving your air-conditioning problems. We are now in our fifty year of operation, and we receive many letters like your indicating a high level of customer satisfaction with our installation. We are pleased that our technical staff assisted you so capably. We would like you to know that it you need to contact us at any time in the future. Our engineers will be equally responsive to your request for assistance. If we can be of service to you again, please let us know. Thank you again for your very kind letter.承蒙来信赞扬本公司提供的空调维修工程服务，欣喜不已。五年前开业至今，屡获客户来函嘉奖，本公司荣幸之至。欣悉贵公司识技术人员的服务，他日苛有任何需要，亦请与本公司联络，本公司定当提供优秀技师，竭诚效劳。在此谨再衷心感谢贵公司的赞赏，并请继续保持联络。
Thank you for your enquiry of 5 May concerning silk blouses. We regret to say that we do not manufacture clothing to your own designs to the highest European standards: Swan Textiles corporation The industrial zone Shekou We supply the factor with all their silk materials, I enclose a swatch of our stock materials for your examination. Should you desire any of these samples made up into finished products , we can supply the swan factory with them. We hope that this will be of help to you and wish you every success in your business dealings.谢谢5月5月日来函查询关于纡绸罩衫的事宜。本公司只生产纡绸布料，供应纺织品批发商和制造厂家，并没有制造成衣，因而未能接受贵公司订货，谨致万分歉意然而，本公司乐意推荐本地一家生产优质男装的工厂，相信可按贵公司设计的款式制造符合欧洲最高标准的服装：蛇口工业区天鹅纺织品公司。该厂的丝绸布料全由本公司供应，随函了什样本以供查阅，如贵公司认为适合，本公司乐意负责供应所需布料。愿上资料对贵公司有所帮助。谨祝生意兴隆，事事顺达。
Thank you for your letter of 26 January. I apologize for the delivery problems you had with us last month. I have had a meeting with our production and shipping managers to work out a better system for handling your account .We know we made a mistake on your last order . Although we replaced it for you. we want to make sure it does not happen again. We have devised the enclosed checklist to use for each of your future order. It includes your firm's particular specifications, packing requirements and marking instructions. I believe can service your company better and help you operations run more smoothly with this safeguard. Please contact us if there are any additional points you would like us to include.感谢1月26日来信。对上月贵公司更换所需货品，唯恐类似事件再发生，本公司生产、运输和出口部经理已商议制订更有效方法处理贵公司事务，并为此特别设计清单。随信奉上该清单，供贵公司今后订货之用。当中包括特殊规格、包装要求和樗说明等栏目，相信此举有助本公司提供更佳服务，促进双方合作。如欲增设任何栏目于该清单上，恳求惠示。
Thank you for your enquity of 25 August.We are always pleased to hear from a valued customer.I regret to say that we cannot agree to your request for technical information regarding our software security sysytems.The fact is,that most of our competitors also keep such information private and confidential.I sincerely hope that this does not inconvenience you in any way.If there is any other way in which we can help. do not hesitte to contact us again. 8月25日信收悉，谨此致谢。来信要求本公司提供有关软件保密系统的技术资料，但鉴于同行向来视该等资料为机密文件，本公司亦不便透露，尚祈见谅。我真诚地希望这样不会对贵公司造成不便。如需本公司协助其他事宜，欢迎随时赐顾垂询。祝业务蒸蒸日上!
We have been doing business together for a long time and we value our relationship of late, we have not been able to provide the kind of service we both want. The problem is that your purchasing department is changing orders after they have been placed. This has led to confusion and frustration for both of our companies. In several instances. you have returned goods that were originally ordered. To solve the problem , I propose that on receipt of an order, our sales staff contact you to verify it. If you decide on any changes, we will amend the order and fax you a copy so that you can check it. I trust this system will cut down on delays and errors, and allow our operations to run smoothly.承蒙多年惠顾，本公司感激万分。然近来合作出现问题，令服务水准未能符合对方要求，本公司为此担忧不已。贵公司采部发出定单后，再三更改内容；更有甚者，屡次退回订购之货品，导致了双方公司工作中的混乱和困惑。为避免问题日趋严重，特此在接到定单后，由本公司销售人员与贵公司复核。若需作出改支，本公司把定单修改后电传副本，供贵公司查核。盼望上述办法经受减少延误，促进双方业务发展。
It has just come to our attention that you have lately opened your new European headquarters in Brussels. Congratulations on your bold venture. As you know , our companies have had a long business association in the UK. We look forward to collaborating with you in your European venture. Please let us know if we can be of any assistance to you. We will be delighted to help. We wish you the very best of luck and a prosperous future.
Could we meet some time this month to discuss the hypermarket proposal? We want to make decision by the beginning of next month. We would very much like to hear your thoughts before we make any definite plans. Could you choose a venue for the meeting? I can fly to London any time, Perhaps you would prefer Lyon or Paris? I leave it to you to choose. I look forward to seeing you again.您好!未知能否于本月会面，商谈有关特大自助市场的建议呢?我们准备于下月初作出最后决定。在未订下明确计划之前，希望能咨询的意见。敢问能否选定会面地点?在伦敦、巴黎或里昂商谈都可以，悉随尊便。期待与您见面。
Our company manufactures a range of printing presses that are used successfully by companies in over 20 countries. A product specification brochure is enclosed. We are considering expanding our products to new markets and we would appreciate you assistance. In particular , we would like to identify the best agents who are currently serving the printing industryin your region. We are looking for organizations which conduct their business in a truly professional manner. They must be fully conversant with thetechnical side of the printing industry and have a comprehensive understanding of all the features of the lines t6hey represent. We would be very grateful if you could take a few moments to send us the names of three or four organizations that match our requirements.We shall then contact them to explore the possibility of establishing a mutually acceptable business relationship. Thank you very much for your time and consideration in this matter.本公司生产的一系列印刷机，获二十多个国家的公司采用。随函附上产品规格说明书，谨供参考。现为该产品开拓新市场，希望得知贵地区从事印刷工业的代理商资料。如蒙贵公司协助，将不胜感激。如能拨冗寄来数个符合上述要求代理商商号，则感激不尽。本公司将与其联系，研究能否建立互惠互利折业务关系。右蒙惠告，不胜感荷!
I would like to welcome you to our organization. We are very pleased to have you on our ream. I know that you will be equally proud of our products. Our European sales Representative, Antoine Gerin , will be in touch with you at regular intervals. Please feel to call him any time you have a problem, If I can regular intervals. Please feel free to call him any time you have a problem. If I can ever be of service, please call me. I am planning a trip to France next month, and I am looking forward to meeting you. In the meantime, the best of luck with our product line.欢迎加入本公司成为我们的一分子。相信您也会以本公司的产品为荣。欧洲销售代理安东尼•格林会定期与联络，遇有问题可与他商讨。若有其他需要，欢迎向我提出。下月我将赴法国一游，期望能与您会面。谨祝产品销量节节上升。
Would you be interested in stocking a radical new departure in laptop computers? I would very much like to brief you on this great innovation. Could we make an appointment? The machine is the same size as most laptops but comes with some totally new features. The retail price will undercut its nearest competitor by at least 20%.I shall be in the UK from 1 September to 20 October. If you would like to know more, just fax or telex me.贵公司有没有考虑配置最新型号的手提电脑?本公司诚意推介该崭新产品，盼能预约时间作一介绍。该电脑体积和同类电脑相仿，但配备多项先进功能。其零售价较同类产品便宜20%以上。本人将于9月1日至10月20日逗留英国。如蒙拨冗了解该产品资料，烦请函复。
Thank you for your letter of 7 July regarding your new laptop computer. I regret to say that we cannot agree to your request for an appointment. We currently have the sole agency for another computer company, Under the terms of the contract , We are barred from stocking any other company's products. The sole agency comes under review in six months' time . Contact us then and we may be able to consider your new product. 7月7日有关新型号手提电脑函收悉。本公司暂未能安排会面，深感歉意。现时正为另一家电脑公司提任独家代理，根据合约条款，不得销售别家电脑公司的产品。该代理权将于六个月后期满。届时烦请再作联系，共商贵产品代理事宜。
Thank you for your letter of 15 September. I note that you will bein the UK during the whole of November. We are quite interested by the fashion knitwear illustrated in yourcatalogue. As a fashion Chain. We might consider having some of our own designs manufactured in China. Please let me know when you would like to call on us. The week beginning 6 November would suit me best. I look forward to meeting you and discussing this matter.感谢9月15日的来信。欣闻阁下将于11月逗留伦敦一个月，望到时能拨冗相会。本公司对贵公司商品目录中的针织时装深感兴趣。现正研究设计款式，在中国制造后寄本公司时装连锁店发售。如能于11月6日或其后数天抽空来访，当感激不尽。期待与您会面，商讨有关事宜。
Very quietly I take my leave
As quietly as I came here;
Quietly I wave good-bye
To the rosy clouds in the western sky.
The golden willows by the riverside
Are young brides in the setting sun;
Their reflections on the shimmering waves
Always linger in the depth of my heart.
The floatingheart growing in the sludge
Sways leisurely under the water;
In the gentle waves of Cambridge
I would be a water plant!
That pool under the shade of elm trees
Holds not water but the rainbow from the sky;
Shattered to pieces among the duckweeds
Is the sediment of a rainbow-like dream?
To seek a dream? Just to pole a boat upstream
To where the green grass is more verdant;
Or to have the boat fully loaded with starlight
And sing aloud in the splendour of starlight.
But I cannot sing aloud
Quietness is my farewell music;
Even summer insects heep silence for me
Silent is Cambridge tonight!
Very quietly I take my leave
As quietly as I came here;
Gently I flick my sleeves
Not even a wisp of cloud will I bring away
Money is not everything. There's Mastercard & Visa.
One should love animals. They are so tasty.
Love the neighbor. But don't get caught.
Behind every successful man, there is a woman. And behind every unsuccessful man, there are two.
Every man should marry. After all, happiness is not the only thing in life.
The wise never marry, and when they marry they become otherwise.
Success is a relative term. It brings so many relatives.
Never put off the work till tomorrow what you can put off today.
Love is photogenic. It needs darkness to develop.
When I was a child, my homesickness was a small stamp
Linking Mum at the other end and me this.
When grown up, I remained homesick, but it became a ticket
By which I sailed to and from my bride at the other end.
Then homesickness took the shape of a grave,
Mum inside of it and me outside.
Now I'm still homesick, but it is a narrow strait
Separating me on this side and the mainland on the other.
He took the book and laid it on his lap.
The officer put down his glass and stood up.
Opening the drawer he took out the dictionary.
Having prepared her lessons, she began to write up her diary.
The old man involuntarily raised his hand to scratch his bald head.
Last year I went home with my brother to visit our friends.
He went back to his room for the key.
Who dares to go down into the villages for rent these days?
They welcomed the American guests with warm applause.
Very soon he came back, holding that book in his hand.
She had already finished washing. Seated on a stone beside the stream, she wiped her perspiring face with her tunic.
Modesty helps one to go forward, whereas conceit makes one lag behind.
We all advised him to give up smoking.
He drove his opponent into a defensive position.
The earthquake reduced all the houses to ruins.
We must keep the room clean and tidy.
Your mother wants you back home at once.
We elected him a deputy to the district people’s congress.
He felt the house shaking.
We could hear the children at play outside.
It surprised me!
This outrage shocked the world opinion.
The Party Central Committee’s mobilization and organization of the Border Region’s capacities to make war against the Japanese won high praise from the people throughout the country.
(四)兼语式的第一个动词如果是“责怪”, “埋怨”, “批评”, “表扬”等,往往可将第二个动词译作英语的状语短语或状语从句.
Newspapers criticized the author because he failed to present a true picture of life in his works.
She reproached her child for staying out late.
… to ensure a better life for the 1.4 billion people in China…
Young lady, You’d better mind your own business.
But where can I go?
译文：As long as they are living, they always work and study as hard as possible, unwilling to dream their life away, let alone waste even a single moment of their lives.
译文：Once I was deposed into a cold palace on the hillside of the garden, I suddenly felt I was neglected and became very depressed.
译文：Without being noticed, I lifted the curtain in my small room, only to spy the bustle of a kaleidoscopic world down in the garden.
译文：Half of them have come to Vancouver area the past five years only, making it the largest Chinese settlement outside Asia.
译文：My superior, an Asian American with a hot temper, was addicted to smoking and drinking.
译文：Chinese people has never regarded human being as the highest creature among everything else since ancient times, whose behavior in both philosophy and arts takes a rather appropriate proportion with all others in the natural world, but not as an absolute dominant ruler.
译文1：Fishing is an outdoor sport that can help cultivate your mind and it is good for mental and physical health.
译文2：Fishing is an edifying activity, conductive to both the body and the mind.
译文：Could there be any standards to evaluate the meaning of ones life?
译文：To learn, actually, is to experience the indispensable pain and those who cannot get it over with can not become learned.
译文：One spring evening, my parents held a banquet in the garden where all sorts of flowers were in full bloom. Instantly, a crowd of guests gathered together and their laughter was heard all over there.
译文：The current visit to Taiwan for exchange,brief and cursory as it is,has enabled us to see many places,to visit old friends while making new acquaintances.An important topic for discussing at our gatherings was the prosperity of Chinese nation in the 21st century.
译文1：At the turn of the century, our motherland is becoming more prosperous and powerful. People across the Straits will strengthen their exchanges, and work together to realize the cause of the reunification of their motherland.
译文2：At the turn of the century, as our motherland is becoming more prosperous and powerful, people across the Straits will strengthen their exchanges, and work together to realize the cause of the reunification of their motherland.
译文3：At the turn of the century, our motherland becoming more prosperous and powerful, people across the Straits will strengthen their exchanges, and work together to realize the cause of the reunification of their motherland.
译文：There being no telling when hell be home, Ill have to go to bed now.
译文：This national hero lives on, his story lighting up the hearts of millions of people.
“学习语言的主要手段是模仿，这种模仿是从听觉定向活动开始的，经过大脑分析器的作用，然后由心理活动器官的操练而完成的。”心理语言学家认为，语言是从听开始的，当一个婴儿生下来就学说话时，完全是靠听，模仿（imitate）母亲的声音。如果一个婴儿生下来就是一个聋子，他就听不到声音，也谈不上什么成功的模仿者。一个不足10岁的儿童，如果他一直生活在第一语言环境中，他就能学到一种漂亮的母语。如果想学好外语，必须下大功夫模仿，采取多种方式，利用一切机会进行模仿。埃克斯利（Eckersley,C.E.1974）说过，毫无疑问，模仿是成功的钥匙，也许是把金钥匙。（There is no doubt that imitation is one of the keys, perhaps the golden key ,to success.）有人认为模仿很简单，好学，其实不然。养成一个好的模仿习惯并不容易，这种模仿只有像学母语那样，方可学好。不下功夫，以为轻而易举可以模仿好外语语音是不可能的。
用英语想英语，指的是在使用英语时用英语想（think in English），而不是用本族语想。用英语想，也可以说成用英语思考。学英语而不学用英语思考，一定学不好。用英语思考，就是在使用英语进行表达和理解时，没有本族语思考的介入，没有“心译”的介入，或者说本族语思考的介入被压缩到了极不明显的程度，自己也感觉不到“心译”的负担。这才是真正流利，熟练的境界和标志。
汉字的四声（平声、上声、仄声和去声）the four tones of Chinese characters, namely, the level tone, the rising tone, the falling-rising tone, and the falling tone
偏旁basic character component
单口相声monologue comic talk
对口相声comic cross talk
气功controlled breathing exercise
气功疗法breathing technique therapy
草药的四气：寒、热、温、凉four properties of medicinal herb: cold, hot, warm and cool
草药的五味：酸、苦、甘、辛、咸five tastes of medicinal herb: sour, bitter, sweet, hot and salty
二十四节气the twenty-four solar terms
天干地支the heavenly stems and earthly branches
清明节the Pure Brightness Day
端午节the Dragon Boat Festival
中秋节the Mid-Autumn Festival
三幕六场剧a three-act and six-scene play
内容与形式的统一unity of content and form
Make the past serve the present and the foreign serve China.
China is a multinational country with a long history and splendid culture.
Cultural exchange is by no means a process of losing one’s won culture to a foreign culture, but one of inriching a nation’s own culture.
【难易程度】a piece of cake
中国国家旅游局China National Tourism Administration
中国国际旅行社China International Travel Service
旅游管理局tourist administration burear
人文景观places of historic figures and cultural heritage
名山大川famous mountains and great rivers
名胜古迹scenic spots and historical sites
佛教名山famous Buddhist mountain
五岳five great mountains
古建筑群ancient architectural complex
山水风光scenery with mountains and rivers
湖光山色landscape of lakes and hills
青山绿水green hills and clear waters
金石印章metal and stone seals
天下第一泉the finest spring under heaven
国画traditional Chinese painting
联合国教科文组织UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
国民生产总值GNP gross national product
国内生产总值GDP gross domestic product
Guilin landscape tops those elsewhere, and Yangshuo landscape tops that of Guilin.
The temple has a long history dating back to the early period of the Tang Dynasty.
The city boasts the largest and the most famous garden in the country.
现场报道on-the-spot report; live report
新华社Xinhua News Agency
路透社（英）Reuter’s News Agency
塔斯社（俄）TASS; Telegraphic Agency of Soviet Union
每日电讯报（英）The Daily Telegraph
纽约时报The New York Times
华尔街时报The Wall Street Journal
华盛顿邮报The Washington Post
高级口译笔记——信息时代（The Information Age）
兼容性计算机平台compatible computing platform
无线掌上导航器wireless palm pilot
家用电器household electrical appliances
上市be listed on the stock market
中国证监会China Securities Regulatory Commision
纳斯达克NASDAQ National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations
ADSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line，不对称数字订阅线路
DLL：Dynamic Link Library,动态链接库
DNS: Domain Name System，域名系统
FTP: File Transfer Protocol，文件传输协议
Ghost: General Hardware Oriented System Transfer，全面硬件导向系统转移
HTML: HyperText Markup Language，超文本标记语言
HTTP: HyperText Transfer Protocol，超文本传输协议
IP: Internet Protocol，网际协议
ISDN: Integrated Service Digital Network，综合服务数字网络
ISP: Internet Service Provider，因特网服务提供商
Java：由美国太阳(Sun)公司推出的新型面向对象程序设计语言。Java集面向对象、平台无关性、稳固性、安全性、多线程等诸多特性于一体，增加了异常处理、网络编程等方面的功能，特别适合于Internet应用的开发，是实现“一个世界，一个网络”构想的关键。用Java编写的各类软件能真正做到“Write Once,Run anywhere(一次写成，到处运行)”，也就是说，相同的软件可在不同计算机上运行，无论是PC机、苹果机、UNIX计算机、还是顶置盒、PDA(个人数据助理)乃至智能元器件无一例外。
LAN: Local Area Network，局域网
MIDI：Musical Instrument Digital Interface,乐器数字接口
MPEG：是Motion Picture Experts Group的，运动图像专家组
MSN: Microsoft Network，微软网络
OCR：Optical Character Recognition,光学字符识别
OEM：Original Equipment Manufacturer,原始设备制造商
RAM：Random Access Memory，随机存储器，即人们常说的“内存”。
According to statistics from China Internet Network Information Center, the public network covers 365 cities, and the number of on-line computers reached 5.2 million, with 12.6 million regular Internet users and 23,000 web sites.
Today’s Internet is a powerful way to communicate, including e-mail, instant messaging and chatroom services.
The best way of looking at the Internet of the future is to ask what is wrong with today’s.
Today, commerce and communications never cease but go around the clock. On cable-TV news shows, events did not happen at which hour, but an hour or 30 minutes ago. Local time is no longer the meaning marker of events.
色、香、味color, aroma and taste
回锅肉twice-cooked pork slices in brown sauce
炸猪排fried pork chop
北京烤鸭roast Beijing duck
什锦炒蔬stir-fried mixed vegetables
酸辣汤hot and sour soup
鸡茸蘑菇汤cream of mushroom with chicken
扬州炒饭Yangchow fried rice
炒米粉fried ground rice noodles
炸酱面noodles with fried brown sauce paste
油条fried twisted stick
花卷steamed twisted roll
小笼包子steamed meat dumpling
粽子rice dumpling wrapped in reed leaves
黄酒/花雕酒yellow rice wine
烈酒spitits/ strong liquor
（酒）加冰块的on the rocks
什锦色拉mixed fruit salad with ham
什锦水果圣代mixed fruit sundae
Translate the following passage into English
A fall into the pit, a gain in your wit.
All shall be well, Jack shall have Jill.
A man should not bite the hand that feeds him.
Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.
Business is business.
Facts speak louder than words.
Failure is the mother of success.
Fish in troubled waters.
Friends must part.
Great minds think alike.
Health is better than wealth.
Hedges have eyes, walls have ears.
In time of peace prepare for war.
Like father, like son.
Man proposes, God disposes.
Misfortunes never come alone.
Money can’t buy time.
More haste, less speed.
Out of office, out of danger.
Out of sight, out of mind./Far from eye, far from heart.
Pride goes before a fall.
The style is the man.
Time and tide wait for no man.
The remembrance of the past is the teacher of the future.
To teach is to learn.
The tongue cuts the throat.
1. A new broom sweeps clean.
2. All roads lead to Rome./ All rivers run into the sea.
3. As a man sows, so he shall reap.
4. A sparrow cannot understand the ambition of a swan.
5. A straight foot is not afraid of a crooked shoe.
6. A word spoken is past recalling.
7. Beat the dog before the lion.
8 Better an open enemy than a false friend.
9. Diamond cut diamond.
10. Do one thing under cover of another.
11. Dogs bite in every country.
12. Every potter praises his pot.
13. Fine feathers make fine birds.
14. Gifts blind the eyes.
15. Good wine needs no bush.
16. Have a card up one’s sleeve.
17. He cries wine and sells vinegar.
18. He takes a spear to kill a fly.
19. In for a penny, in for a pound.
20. It is better to be the head of a dog/lizard than the tail of a lion.
21. It is better to die than to live when life is a disgrace./ Better die with honor than live with shame.
22. Judge not a book by its cover.
23. Kill two birds with one stone.
24. Let sleeping dogs lie.
25. Love me, love my dog.
26. Much will have more.
27. Once bit, twice shy.
28. Peace on the forehead and war in the mind.
29. Put the cart before the horse.
30. Speak of the devil( and he will appear).
31. Teach fish to swim.
32. The pupil outdoes the master.
33. The same knife cuts bread and fingers.
34. The sauce is better than the fish.
35. There are plenty of fish in the sea.
36. There is no smoke without fire.
1. A bad conscience is a snake in one’s heart.
2. Accidents will happen.
3. A clear conscience is a sure card.
4. A hedge between keeps friendship green.
5. All your swans are geese.
6. As you make the bed, so you must lie in it.
7. A watched pot never boils.
8. Count one’s chickens before they are hatched.
9. Danger is next neighbor to security.
10. Do in Rome as Romans do.
11. Don’t trouble trouble until trouble troubles you.
12. Everybody’s business is nobody’s business.
13. Justice has long arms.
14. He knows most who speaks least./Still water runs deep.
15. Late fruit keeps well.
16. Many kiss the baby by the name of the nurse’s sake.
17. Misfortune might be a blessing in disguises.
18. Names are debts.
19. Nothing venture, nothing have.
20. Rest breeds rust.
21. Rome was not built in a day.
22. Save your breath to cool your porridge.
23. Short pleasure, long lament.
24. Stick together through thick and thin.
25. Take things as they come.
26. The pot calls the kettle black.
27. The shepherd would rather lose the wool than the sheep.
28. Things done cannot be undone.
29. True blue will never stain.
30. You cannot make a crab walk straight.
高级口译笔记——同声传译(Undertaking Simultaneous Interpretation)
The Chinese government will as always support the UN efforts to uphold justice, maintain peace and promote global prosperity.
Our position is widely received that the UN peace-keeping force will stay in that region until a peaceful agreement has been signed by all concerned parties.
I feel very pleased to report to you that China and the United States signed a Memorandum of Understanding in terms of protecting intellectual property rights, an act that has averted a potential trade war.
China’s relations with its neighboring countries are better than ever before, a situation that best represents the interests of the Chinese people and the peoples of other countries concerned.
Over the years, China’s sustained economic growth has played an increasing more important role in boosting the healthy economic development in the Asian-Pacific region and the world as a whole.
询价make an inquiry
到岸价C.I.F.（即Cost, Insurance and Freight)
到岸加佣金价C.I.F.C.（即Cost, Insurance, Freight and Commission)
分期付款payment by installment
信用证结算payment by letter of credit(L/C)
我方on our part
中止合同terminate the contract
提出索赔lodge a claim
要求赔偿损失claim for a compensation of the loss/damage
经营范围line/scope of business
独家经销代理exclusive selling agency
I’d like to hear your quotation on a C.I.F.Los Angeles basis valid for 90 days, with an inclusion of 5% angent’s commission in your quotation.
致开幕词make an opening speech
远道而来/来自大洋彼岸的朋友friends coming from a distant land/the other side of the Pacific
值此之际on the occasion of
借此机会take this opportunity to
以……名义in the name of
本着……精神in the spirit of
代表on the behalf of
回顾过去look back on
展望未来look ahead/look into the future
圆满成功a complete success
提议祝酒propose a toast
建交establishment of diplomatic relations between
互访exchange of visit
一贯奉行in persistent pursuit of
平等互利equality and mutual benefit
On the behalf of all the members of my mission, I would like to take this opportunity to express our sincere thanks to our host for their earnest invitation.
Now, I have the pleasure to declare the 22nd Universal Postal Congress open.
I have the honor to express this warm welcome on behalf of the Chinese Government and people to the delegation from the United Kingdom.
I would like to extend my warmest welocme to all of you.
I wish the conference a complete success!
专程造访come all the way
精心安排a thoughtful arrangement
1. You must be our long-expected guest,……
2. Excuse me, I haven’t had the honor of knowing you.
3. I’m glad to have the honor of introducing……
4. Small world, isn’t it?
5. Thank you for coming all the way to our company.
6. I hop you’ll enjoy your stay here.
7. host a receptipn banquet in your honor
首席执行官chief cxecutive officer(CEO)
参谋长chief of staff
副研究员associate research fellow
助理研究员assistant research fellow
常务副校长managing vice president
三好学生"triple-A" outstanding student; outstanding student
Fresh Grade Legs大鸡腿
Fresh Grade Breast鸡胸肉
Rolled Pork Belly卷好的腰部瘦肉连带皮
Pork sausage meat做香肠的绞肉
Spare Rib Pork chops带骨的瘦肉
Spare Rib of Pork小排骨肉
Steak & Kidney牛肉块加牛腰
Porter House Steak腰上的牛排肉
Best thick seam白牛肚
Smoked mackerel with crushed pepper corn带有黑胡椒粒的熏鲭*
Boiled Cod roes鳕鱼子
Mustard & cress芥菜苗
Swede or Turnip芜菁
Pudding rice or short rice短米，较软
THAI Fragrant rice泰国香米*
Self- raising flour低筋面粉
Whole meal flour小麦面粉
dark Brown Sugar红糖（感冒时可煮姜汤时用）
Red chilli powder辣椒粉
Chinese red pepper花椒
Salt black bean豆豉
Sea vegetable or Sea weed海带
Red kidney bean大红豆
Dried black mushroom冬菇
Tiger lily buds金针
考生在翻译动宾短语的时候，应先考虑宾语的成分。宾语可能为名词、名词词组和句子。不同成分的宾语决定了谓语的使用。比如在以下例子中“希望”的选择面很大，既可以用hope连接句子，也可以用hope for，look forward to等连接名词词组，那么考生就得考虑宾语更容易翻译成词组或句子。因此，动宾连接原则的核心思想是“先宾语，后谓语”，翻译会豁然开朗。
The Chinese people are always looking forward to global peace and friendship among all nations.
The Chinese people are always hoping that the world is at peace and people of all nations will coexist friendlily.
The Chinese people have always been cherishing freedom and peace.
The Chinese people always cherish freedom and peace.
The Chinese people are always cherishing freedom and peace.
China was and remains to be …
The Chinese people have cherished freedom and peace than ever.
At that time, ……
By 2007, the per capita GDP in Shanghai is expected to reach US$7500.
As a result we were going to be living in a fundamentally unmanaged economic system.
After all, China and Cuba and other targets of U.S. –led criticism in the committee were always going to vote and lobby against Washington.
由于英语是主语显著语（subject-prominent language），构建在主谓轴（subject-predicate pivot）上，主语决定了句法结构；汉语为语义性语言，其中主语的重要性相对较低，无主语的现象比比皆是。因此在汉英转化中最重要的就是确定主语，主语选择成功了，句子越翻越顺；选择失败，考生越翻越累。主语的确定归根结底有三种方法：使用原主语；重新确定主语；增补主语。
The citizens will live more spaciously and comfortably, benefiting most directly from achieving the goal.
The idea of a national ID, however, was locked out of earlier drafts of legislation by a coalition of civil rights and ethnic groups, who opposed a requirement that all non-citizens carry identifying documents.
To be frank, if we leave aside mathematics and bypass the abundant formulas, the basic principles of the discipline (of science) are understandable and appreciable.
They cannot control who crosses their borders either physically or culturally.
They have been increasingly chagrined by Washington’s tendency to ignore the international consensus on issues ranging from the use of land mines to the Kyoto climate change treaty.
The APEC meeting in this year will focus mainly on two aspects: one is on strengthening the cooperation among all APEC members to cope with the possible economic recession with rebuilt-up confidence; the other is on promoting the liberalization of trade and investment among all APEC members for the start of a new round of negotiations by WTO.
Many traditional U.S. supporters clearly withdrew their votes to signal displeasure over U.S. unilateralism.
The rest of the world will have to react to this millennial economic shift to Asia, and to the rising power of China.
The project budget sustains both the existence of graduate students and the fiscal solvency of the university.
Thanks to the rapid development in the past 20-plus years, a relatively solid foundation in terms of material wealth and technology has been laid in the western region of China.
The rapid development in the past 20-plus years witnesses a relatively solid foundation in terms of material wealth and technology in the western region of China
Through creating a favorable background, China will be devoted to building a national system for innovation to promote the innovation in knowledge, technology and system, which is the only path/indispensable/essential for China to achieve cross-century/trans-century/century-crossing/turn-of-the-century development.
Not vexed by reading comprehensively though futilely, I deal seriously with teaching and handling affairs and have no regret for suffering losses.
China has been engaged in the talks for entry into the WTO for 15 years with its consistent stance.
汉译英中，一出现“…的”许多学生立马想到of…的架构，这种思维模式主要是受到了所属关系的影响。of在英语当中主要是所属关系，而“…的”不仅有所属关系，而且有包含关系等，因此我们在翻译中要看清句子的主主语——真正意义上的主语，而不必选择句子的次主语——语法上的主语。比如在第一个例子中，主主语是“楼”，而次主语才是“质量”，因此如把此句翻成The quality of the building is poor.虽然也没有错，在考试中也不一定会扣分，但还是显得比较业余。另外在最后一个例子中，译文如译成The development of our relations has made us not only close fiends but also brothers，就显得特别地功利，好像表示我们关系的发展使我们成为兄弟了，而不是我们的关系。总而言之，我们并不是要刻意地减少of架构，而是把一些非定语关系的of架构转化为其它成分。
The building is not well built.
the furthering economic globalization and rapid/swift/speedy/prompt development of science and technology
A strong, prosperous and developed China will pose no threat to any countries.
Our relations have so grown that bind us not only as close friends but also as brothers.
汉语中的两大成分地位较低，分别是宾语和定语。在英译汉中，较长的宾语从句常常会转化为名词词组，比如在第一个例句中的“how”如果翻译为“如何化去税款”这个宾语从句，在汉语中就显得不伦不类，所有一些5W1H的疑问词基本上都有可能转化为名词，如when（时间），where（地点），who（人选），why（原因）。此外，对于修饰语较多的名词性短语，汉语也不喜欢用定语进行堆砌，而偏向用简单的主谓短语，如第二个例子中把“the most skeptical Gates”翻译成“一个持怀疑态度的盖茨”，就不如变成主谓短语“盖茨对此持怀疑态度”。
They provide a means by which wealthy people and corporations can in effect decide how their tax payments will be spent.
But the most skeptical Gates of the new millennium is someone who evinces a passion for giving and government aid.
Now, the debate has shifted away from the ethics of baby-making and toward the morality of cloning embryos for their cells and tissues, which might be used to treat diseases.
But such self-interest is hardly enlightened.
The project budget sustains both the existence of graduate students and the fiscal solvency of the university.
Collectively, the Asian Countries will have a larger economy than the rest of the world put together.
From a small beginning at the turn of the century ……
Inside these nations there will be mass prosperity, but with a large minority in serious poverty, and a small number who are very rich.
The major feature of project money, whether its source is government or business, is that it is given on a contractual basis, a different contract for each project, so that the investigator’s independence rests upon his capacity to secure a succession of contracts.
The resulting patchwork of laws, people on all sides of the issue say, complicates a nationwide picture already clouded by scientific and ethnical questions over whether and how to restrict cloning or to ban it altogether.
A law that goes into effect on Jan.1 allows computer users in the state to refuse unwanted solicitations en masse and sue spammers who violate their wishers for as much as $1 million.
1、狮子（lion）: roar, howl;
2、老虎（tiger）: roar, howl;
11、猪（pig）: grunt, whick, aqueak
14、熊（bear）: bruzz, growl
16、猴（monkey）: screech, gibber, chatter, snutter, jabber, howl
17、骆驼（camel）: nuzz, grunt
18、鹿（deer）: call, bell, bellow
24、羊（sheep,goat）: baa, bleat
26、驴（ass,donkey）: bray, hee-haw
3、蛇（snake, serpent）: hiss
Song: Hark, Hark!歌：听啊！听！
The watching dogs bark!犬在门前狂吠！
Hark, Hark! I hear听啊！听！我听见
The strain of strutting chanticlear伸颈的雄鸡
1.Crack! The stick broke in two.
2.Only the venliator in the cellar window kept up a cealess rattle.
3.Round the corner of CroscentBay, between the pile-up masses of broken rock, a flock of sheep came pattering.
1.The cock in the yard crowed its first round.
2. He felt as if he must shout and sing, he seemed to hear about him the rustle of unceasing and inmumberable wings.
3. They splashed through the mire to the village.
1.The logs were burning briskly in the fire.
2.“Impartinent!” snorted Imalds.
3.Then a dog began to howl somewhere ina a farm house far down the road--a long, agonized wailing, as if from fear.
I seldom opened my door in a winter evening without hearing it; Hoo hoo hoo, hooner hoo, sounded sonorously, and the first three syllables accented somewhat like how deardo; or sometimes hoo hoo only.
Give the floor to请…发言
It is a great pleasure for me to我很荣幸…
Updated research research result最新的调查结果
Attach the importance to对…给予重视
对…表示衷心的感谢express sincere gratitude to
请…讲话Let’ s welcome to give a speech
以掌声对…表示的最热烈的欢迎propose the warmest applause to
颁奖仪式the Award Ceremony
隆重举行observe the grand opening of
请…颁奖Let’s invite to present the award
取得圆满成功achieve complete ceremony
全球庆典global celebration ceremony
宣布…结束declare the closing of
请全体起立，奏国歌Please rise for the national anthem.
Competitive job market充满竞争的就业市场
Gross National Product国民生产总值
Meet the challenges迎接挑战
The threshold of our transition into the new millenmum跨越新千年的门槛
UNCHS (United Nations Centre for Human Settlements)联合国人居中心
Well-serviced formal city服务齐全的高尚城市
把…列为重要内容place as the priority
不放松工作never neglect the work
对…表示衷心祝贺extend our sincere congratulations on
节约用水先进城市model city of water conservation
使…取得预期效果attain the results expected
授予…光荣称号confer honorable awards on
严重缺水城市a city of severe water shortage
与…比有差距compared with ,there is still some way to go
预祝…圆满成功wish a complete success
开源与节流并重broaden sources of income &reduce expenditure
对外贸易港口seaport for foreign trade
国内生产总值National Gross Products
活跃的经济带vigorous economic region
留下最美好的印象may you have a most pleasant impression
盛世the grand occasion
祝愿在停留愉快wish a pleasant stay
综合性商港comprehensive commercial seaport
春意盎然spring is very much in the air
迸发出心灵的火花ignite the sparks of understanding
建立合作桥梁build the bridge for cooperation
内容翔实substantial in content
能源大省major province of energy
日程紧凑tight in schedule
industrial reuse and recycling工业中水利用
urban water conservation城市节水
water saving fixtures节水装置
港口经营多元化diversification in port operation
责任和义务perform our duties and fulfill our obligations
地区行业盛会a well-known regional event of the industry
without access to享受不到
计划经济的束缚the bounding of planning economy
科教兴省和走可持续发展的道路vitalize the province by science and technology and sustainable development
控制增长势头curb the trend of steep rise
面临严峻挑战face severe challenges
提高意识strengthen the awareness
相互尊重，求同存异，平等互利，优势互补，借鉴经验，拓展合作，立足当前，着眼未来respect each other, seek the common ground while putting aside difference, enjoy equality and mutual benefits, complement each other’s advantages, learn each other’s experience, expand the cooperation, stand from the present and look forward to the future
以此会议为契机take the opportunity of this seminar
转轨建制过程缓慢the tr4ansition of mechanism is slow
总结经验教训draw lessons from the past
community development oriented以发展社区为宗旨的
不求最大，但求最好seek the best instead of the largest
城乡一体化the unified design between the city and the countryside
房地产开发real estate development
扶贫帮困help and support the poor
精品意识consciousness for the best
精品住宅区model human settlements
文明乘车civil bus ride
主办城市the host city
濒临停产边缘be close to production collapse
回报期period of investment return
痛定思痛recall a painful experience
卧薪尝胆endure present hardships to revive
develop and flourish茁壮成长
expanding export earner不断扩展的出口创汇者
impose stringent rules定下严格规则
总经营额total business revenue
from square one从头开始
instill or reinforce灌输或强化
不断调整和日趋完善的阶段the stage of constant adjustment and improvement
产学研一体化的办学机制the educational mechanism of combining learning with research and production
成人学历教育，高等教育自学考试continuing education and self-study examination of higher education
初露端倪reveal its importance for the first time
复合型，应用型管理人才versatile and practical management talents
民俗风情customs and habits
相伴而生be accompanied by
应势而生come into existence as the situation requires
The Economic Commission for Europe欧洲经济委员会
A world-wide reputation誉满全球
The world Health Organization世界卫生组织
International civil servants国际事务公务员
International press center国际新闻中心
Works of art艺术品
International trading center国际贸易中心
Rich cultural blend丰富多彩的文化交融
中国革命历史博物馆the Museum of the Chinese Revolution
一座历史丰碑a historical monument
专题展览exhibitions on special subject
经历了数千年的风吹雨打being beaten by elements for thousands of years
古典艺术精品classical art treasures
世界文化遗产World Cultural Heritage
紫禁城the Forbidden City
文物宝库a treasure house of cultural relics
systematic market process有组织的买卖过程
New York Stock Exchange纽约证券交易所
Contemplate on the harmonization统一的期望
国际货币组织International Monetary Fund
亚太经合组织Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
广泛关注arouse wide concern
公正合理的国际经济新秩序a new and reasonable international economic order
从大局出发proceed from the whole situation
贸易投资自由化trade and investment liberalization
日新月异progress with each passing day
journals and periodicals杂志期刊
recreations and athletic facilities娱乐体育设施
recipients of Nobel Prize诺贝尔奖金获得者
intellectual and personal qualities文化和个人素质
sense of community团队意识
成人教育学院continuing education school
教育部Ministry of Education
全国重点大学national key university
共同关心的信息mutually concerned information
fresh water resource洁水资源
over the last couple of decades在过去的二十年里
land available for farming适耕地
fresh water available可用清洁水
path to prosperity通向繁荣之路
seize the opportunity抓住机遇
remarkable environmental progress引人注目的环境
生活必需品the bare necessities of life
捕鱼量the volume of fishing
pay tribute to表示敬意
subsidies and grants津贴和拨款
problem of terrorism恐怖主义问题
gave their lives to the highest calling将生命献给了最崇高的事业
target of terrorism恐怖主义的目标
intensified our effort加强力量
bring to justice使归案受审
世界知识产权组织World Intellectual Property Organization
私营部门the private sector
在进入新的千年之际at the threshold of the new millennium
基本人权fundamental human rights
任重道远the burden is heavy and the road is long
internet phone industry网络电话业
vast potential for future development广阔的发展前景
telephone sound quality电话音质
GPS（Global Positioning System）全球卫星定位系统
Intelligent traffic management systems智能交通管理系统
能源综合利用comprehensive utilization of energy
相对论the theory of relativity
层出不穷emerge one after another
科教兴国战略the strategy of economic development through science-technology and education
中国科学院Chinese Academy of Sciences
综合国力the overall national strength
磁悬浮铁路magnetic suspended railway
juvenile crime bill青少年犯罪
easy access to轻易接近
step up to its responsibilities担负起责任
law enforcement professionals执法者
personal identification number密码
pull double duty具备双重功能
be hot for the idea热衷于这个主意
增强性能strengthen the property
减少故障to reduce the breakdown
汽车废气的排放discharge of automobile exhaust fumes
毗邻而居be adjacent to
a giant leap into the future走向未来的一次飞跃
cash for votes用钱拉选票
处于执牛耳的地位occupy a leading position
以全体运动员的名义in the name of all the athletes
借助不正当的手段resort to unjust means
On a cold, frosty day an ant was dragging out some of the corn which he had laid up in the summertime, to dry it .A grasshopper, half perished with hunger, besought the ant to give him a morsel of to preserve his life. "What were you doing, "said the ant, "this last summer ?""Oh," said the grasshopper,"I was not idle .I kept singing all the summer long ."said the ant, laughing and shutting up his granary ."Since you could sing all summer, you may dance all winter."
Winter finds out what summer lays by.
a morsel of一些，些许
A crow had snatched a goodly piece of cheese out of a window, and flew with it into a high tree, intent on enjoying her prize. A fox spied the dainty morsel, and thus he planned his approaches, "Oh, crow, "said he, "how beautiful are thy wings ! how bright thine eye! How graceful thy neck! Thy breast is the breast of an eagle ! thy claws-I beg pardon-thy talons, are a match for all the beasts for the field, oh, that such a bird should be dumb, and want only a voice."the crow, pleased with the flattery, and chuckling to think how she would surprise the fox with her caw, opened her mouth. Down dropped the cheese! Snapping it up, the fox observed, as he walked away, that whatever he had remarked of her beauty, he had said nothing yet of her brains.
Men seldom flatter without some private end in view, and they who listen to such music may expect to have to pay the piper.
a goodly piece of相当大一块
a match for ……的对手
Snapping it up猛地咬住
to pay the piper负担费用，承担代价
A jackdaw, as vain and conceited as jackdaw could be, picked up the feathers which some peacocks had shed, stuck them amongst his own, and despising his old companions, introduced himself with the greatest assurance into a flock of those beautiful birds .They, instantly detecting the intruder, stripped him of his borrowed plumes, and falling upon him with their beaks sent him about his business .The unlucky jackdaw, sorely punished and deeply sorrowing, betook himself to his former companions, and would have flocked with them again as if nothing had happened .But they, recollecting what airs he had given himself, drummed him out of their society, while one of those whom he had so lately despised, read him this lecture："Had you been contented with what nature made you, you would have escaped the chastisement of you r betters and also the contempt of you r equals。”
with the greatest assurance满怀信心地
sent him about his business把他赶出去
read him this lecture教训他
A fox had fallen into a well, and had been casting about for a long time how he should get out again, when at length a goat came to the place, and wanting to drink, asked Reynard whether the water was good, and of there was plenty of it .The fox, dissembling the real danger of his case, replied :"come down, my friend, the water is so good that I can not drink enough of it, and so aboundant that it can not be exhausted ."Upon this the goat without any more ado leaped in, when the fox, taking advantage of his friend's horns, as nimbly leaped out, and coolly remarked to the poor deluded goat :"if you had half as much brains as you have beard, you would have looked before you leaped."
without any more ado不费吹灰之力
taking advantage of利用
look before you leap三思而后行
Three bulls fed in a field together in the greatest peace and amity .A lion had long watched them in the hope of making prize of them, but found that there was little chance for him so long as they kept all together .He therefore began secretly to spread evil and slanderous reports of one against the other ,till he had formented a jealousy and distrust amongst them . No sooner did the lion see that they avoided one another ,and fed each by himself apart ,than he fell upon them ,and so made an easy prey of them all.
The quarrels of friends are the opportunities of foes.
making prize of逮住
fell upon them向他们攻击
A Leopard and a fox had a contest which was the finer creature of the two ,the leopard put forward the beauty of its numberless spots ,but the fox replied: "It is better to have a versatile mind than a variegated body.
A bear used to boast of his excessive love for man.saying that he never worried or mauled him when dead .The fox observed .with a smile :"I should have thought more of profession if you never eaat him alive ."
Better save a man from dying than slalve him when dead.
An ox, grazing in a swampy meadow, chanced to set his foot among a parcel of young frogs, and crushed nearly the whole brood to death .One that escaped ran off to his mother with the dreadful news."and ,oh ,mother !"said he ,"it was a beast -such a big four footed beast!-that did it .""Big?" quoth the old frog , "How big? Was it as big" -- and she puffed herself out to a great degree-"as big as this ?""oh!"said the little one ,"a great deal bigger than that .""well, was it so big ?"and she swelled herself out yet mere ."Indeed ,mother ,but it was ,and of you were to burst yourself you would never reach half its size."provoked at such a disparagement of her powers, the old frog made one more trial ,and burst herself indeed.
So men are ruined by attempting greatness to which they have no claim.
a parcel of一群
puffed herself out鼓气把自己吹大
A Wolf had got a bone stuck in his throat and in the greatest agony ran up and down, beseeching every animal he met to relieve him, at the same time hinting at a very handsome reward to the successful operator. A Crane, moved by his entreaties and promises, ventured her long neck down the Wolf's throat, and drew out the bone. She then modestly for the promised reward. To which the Wolf, grinning and showing his teeth, replied with seeming indignation: "Ungreateful creature! to ask for any other reward than that you have put you head into a wolf's jaws and brought it safe again!"
Those who are charitable only in the hope of a return must not be surprised if in their dealings with evil men, they meet with more jeers than thanks.
in the great agony极其痛苦
with seeming indignation充满怒气
A Hound, who had been excellent one in his time, and had done good service to his master in the field, at length become worn out with the weight of years and trouble. One day, when hunting the wild boar, he seized the creature by the ear, but his teeth giving way, he was forced to let go his hold, and the boar escaped. Upon this the huntsman, coming up, severely rate him. But the feeble Dog replied: "Spare your old servant! it was the power not not the will that failed me. Remember rather what I was, than abuse me for what I am.
in his time想当年
the weight of years and trouble长年劳累
seized ... by the ear咬住...的耳朵
Some Geese and some Cranes fed together in the same field. One day the sportsmen came suddenly down upon them. The Cranes being light of body, flew off in a moment; but the geese, weighted down by their fat, were all taken.
In civil commotions, they fare best who have least to fetter them.
come suddenly down upon突然袭击
have least to fetter>最少牵挂
There was a great stir made among all the Beasts, which could boast of largest family. So they came to the Lioness. "And how many," said , "do you have at a birth?" "One," said she, grimly, "but that one is a lion."
Quality comes before quantity.
at a birth一胎
A Bowman took aim at an Eagle and hit him in the heart. As the Eagle turned his head in the agonies of death, he saw that the Arrow was winged with his own feathers. "How much sharper," said he, "are the wounds made by weapons which we ourselves have supplied!"
took aim at瞄准
in the agonies of death疼得死去活来
In days of yore, a mighty runmbling was heard in a mountain. It was said to be in labor, and multitudes flocked together, from far and near, to see what it would produce. After long expectation and many wise conjectures from the by-standers -- out popped a Mouse!
The story applies those magnificent promises end in a paltry performance.
In days of yore古时候
multitudes flocked together人群聚集
A Woodman came into a forest to ask the Trees to give him a handle for Ax. It seemed so modest a request that the principal tree at once agreed to it, and it was settled among them that the plain, homely Ash should furnish what was wanted. No sooner had the Woodman fitted the staff to his purpose ,than he began laying about him on all side. felling the whole matter too late, whispered to the Cedar: "the first concession has lost all ;if we has not a sacrificed our humble neighbor, we might have yet stood for ages ourselves."
the principal tree领头树
was settled among them大家商定
laying about him向他四周乱砍
might have yet stood for ages也许还能活几百年
Two friends were traveling on the same road together, when they met with a bear .The one, in great fear, without a thought of his companion, climbed up into a tree, and hid himself .The other, seeing that he had on chance single-handed against the bear, had nothing left but to throw himself on the ground and feign to be dead, for he had heard that the bear will never touch a dead body .A s he thus lay, the bear came up to his head, muzzling and snuffing at his nose, and ears, and heart, but the immovably held his breath, and the beast, supposing him to be dead, walked away .When the bear was fairly out of sight, his companion came down out of the tree, and asked what it was that the bear whispered to him-"for"says he, "I observed he put his mouth very close to your ear . ""why,"replies the other, "it was no great secret, he only bid me have a care how I kept company with those who, when they get into a difficulty, leave their friends in a lurch."
A Husbandman who had a quarrelsome family ,after having tried in vain to reconcile them by words ,thought he might more readily prevail by an example .So he called his sons and bid them lay a bundle of sticks before him .Then ,having tied them into a fagot, he told the lads ,one after the other ,to take it up and break it .They all tied ,but tried in vain .Then untying the fagot ,he gave them the sticks to break one by one .This they did with the greatest ease .Then said the father:"Thus you ,my sons ,as long as you remain united ,are a match for all you enemies ;but differ and separate ,and you are undone."
Union is strength.
a match for ……的对手
A Miser, to make sure of his property, sold all that he had had converted it into a great lump of gold, which he hid in a hole in the ground, and went continually to visit and inspect it. This roused the curiosity of one of his workmen, who, suspecting that there was a treasure, when his master's back was turned went to the spot and stole it away. When the Miser returned and found the place empty, he wept and tore his hair. But a neighbor who saw him in this extravagant grief, and learned the cause of it, said: "Fret thyself no longer, but take a stone and put it in the same place, and think that it is your lump of gold; for, as you never meant to use it, the one will do you as much gold as the other."
The worth of money is not in its possession, but in its use.
thyself = yourself
A Man and a Satyr having struck up an acquaintance, sat down together to eat. The day being wintry and cold, the Man put his fingers to his mouse and blew opon them. "What's that for, my friend?" asked the Satyr. " My hands are so cold," said the Man, "I do it to warm them." In a little while some hot food was placed before them, and the Man, raising the dish to his mouse, again blew opon it. "And what's the meaning of that, now?" said the Satyr. "Oh," replied the Man, "my porridge is so hot, I do it to cool it." "Nay, then," said the Satyr, "from this moment I renounce your friendship, for I will have nothing to do with one who blows hot and cold with the same mouse."
strike up an acquaintance偶然成为朋友
9. Dictionary of American Slang ---Compiled and Edited by Harold Wentworth and Stuart Berg Flexner
[误] With a comet like him, nothing can be accomplished. [正] With a jinx like him, nothing can be accomplished.
注：“扫帚星”是中国人对“慧星”（comet）的俗称，因其后面象拖着的一条像扫帚一样的长尾巴而得名。在中国古代，“扫帚星”被认为是灾难的预兆，并被用来比喻不吉利的人或事；祸根：（person or thing that is thought to bring）bad luck（to sb/sth）；curse。英语的comet虽然没有这层含义，但却有一个对应的说法，即jinx。例：There‘s a jinx on/Someone‘s put a jinx on this car: it‘s always giving me trouble. “这辆汽车上有什么妨人的东西，总给我找麻烦”。
[误] Some prefer radish but others prefer cabbage. [正] Tastes differ.
注：Tastes differ/vary是句英语谚语，除此以外，原句还可翻译成No dish suits all tastes或You can never make everyone happy等。《新概念英语》第三册第23课的标题是：One man‘s meat is another man‘s poison，表达的很生动。总之，应采取意译。
03.他一向嘴硬，从不认错。[误] He has always got a hard mouth and never admit a fault. [正] He never says uncle.
注：say (cry) uncle: to give up or in; to surrender; to admit defeat. Mainly used by boys, as when fighting。主要是男孩们打架时的用语，当一方想制服另一方时，就用命令的口气说：“Say uncle!”这时，有的孩子为了表示不服输，就是不说。后来，say uncle就成了“服输”的代名词，而not say uncle就相当于“嘴硬”了。
[误] The teacher likes this sweet-mouthed little girl very much.
[正] The teacher likes this honey-lipped little girl very much.
[误] The student all dislike him because he often pats the teacher‘s ass.
[正] The students all dislike him because he often licks the teacher‘s boots.
注：以前在欧洲，臣民见到国王与王后往往要葡匐到在，亲吻他们的靴子。后来，人们将lick the boots引申为“为了某种目的而讨好某人”，它与汉语的“拍马屁”含义一样。在美国英语中，“拍马屁”还有另一种说法，即polish the apple，它典出以前的学生用擦亮的苹果来讨好老师。
[误] Have you ever heard that Mike broke up with his girlfriend.
[正] Have you ever heard that Mike dumped his girlfriend.
注：break up with sb.虽然表示“与某人分手了”，但并没说明是谁先提出来的。而dump的原意指“倾倒垃圾”，用在这里则表示像倒垃圾一样地甩掉。
[误] We will build our motherland into a socialist modern powerful country.
[正] We will build our motherland into a modern powerful socialist country.
08.我想要一点白酒。[误] I‘d like a little bit of white wine. [正] I‘d like a little bit of liquor.
注：汉语的“酒”可指任何酒，包括白酒、葡萄酒、啤酒，甚至米酒；但英语中则要分别用liquor,wine,beer及rice wine表示。所以要注意，英语的wine与汉语的“酒”是有区别的，它仅指点葡萄酒。而且red wine是红葡萄酒，white wine是白葡萄酒。
[误] Chairman of the People‘s Republic of China [正] President of the People‘s Republic of China
注：以前，我们一直将“主席”翻译为chairman，例如：great leader Chairman Mao（伟大领袖毛主席）。其实“主席”与chairman并不等义，chairman在英语中通常指会议或某一具体组织的负责人，它的权力和重要性不及中文的“主席”。这就是为什么1983年，在我国《宪法》的英译单行本中开始使用President一词，并沿用至今。另外，国内仍有不少词典把“班/级长（学校的）”译为“class monitor”，这是“四人帮”时代的产物，那时的“班长”是专司监管学生的，所以译作“monitor”。而“班长”的正确译文应该是“class president”。
10.转战南北[误] fight south and north [正] fight north and south
注：在地理方位的表达习惯上，中英文有一定的区别。中国人习惯于先“东西”后“南北”，而且在涉及“南北”时，习惯于先说“南”，再说“北”，如：“南征北战”、“南来北往”等。而英美人与此正好相反，如“江苏在中国的东南部”英文是Jiangsu is in the south-east of China,而“新疆在中国的西北部”应译为Xinjiang is in the north-west of China。
[误] Almost all people think that the other mountain is higher than the one he‘s standing on. They never feel saisfied with what they‘ve already got.
[正] Almost all people think that the grass is greener on the other hill. They never feel saisfied with what they‘ve already got.
注：“这山望着那山高”是指人不满足于现状的心理，它在英语中已经有了现成的说法，即the grass is greener on the other hill（他山的草更绿），因此我们借用即可，这样既方便又更有利于与西方人沟通。
[误] Beijing‘s winning the bid for the Olympics makes our blood boil.
[正] Beijing‘s winning the bid for the Olympics makes us excited.
注：make one‘s blood boil是指“激怒某人”，而非“使人激动”。英语中“使人激动”的说法除了make one excited，还有较为口语化的make one‘s spine tingle。
[误] Don‘t listen to their babbling. Nothing of the sort.
[正] Don‘t be fooled by their babbling. Nothing of the sort.
注：原文中的“听”不能用listen to来表示，因为listen to指“听”的动作，而原文中的“别听”不是不让他“听”，而是劝告他“不要听信”，因此，用not be fooled by才更达意。
[误] People around here all feel that he has affairs outside his own marriage.
[正] People around here all feel that he is leading a double life.
注：affair本身就指“私通”或“暧昧关系”，当然是“婚外”的事，所以outside one‘s own marriage无疑是多此一举了。英语中“有婚外恋”的地道说法应该是lead a double life。
[误] Although other people never take her seriously, she is the pearl on her father‘s hand at home.
[正] Although other people never take her seriously, she is the apple of her father‘s eye at home.
注：中英文常用不同的喻体表明相同的喻义，“掌上明珠”与the apple of one‘s eye就是一个很好的例子。这种情况我们一般应尊重各国文化和习俗，翻译时取目的语的固定说法，而不必直译，这有助于将意思更有效地传达给读者。the apple of one‘s eye源自圣经《旧约》，当时人们用apple指人的瞳孔。尽管瞳孔现在已经用pupil来表示，不再是apple了，但这一用法却延续了下来。
[误] It‘s ten o‘clock. Get up, lazy worm! [正] It‘s ten o‘clock. Get up, lazy bones!
17.我唯一的资本就是勤奋。[误] My only capital is diligence. [正] My only means to success is diligence.
注：原文的“资本”是借喻，实际指“可以依靠并取得成功的手段”。而英语的capital指money used to produce more wealth or for starting a business，并没有中文那样的引申意思。所以，这里的“资本”不能与capital画等号。也有人用advantage来翻译“资本”，虽然不尽意，但至少可以让读者理解。
[误] This department store has set up a resting-place, much to the customers‘ appreciation.
[正] This department store has set up a lounge, much to the customers‘ appreciation.
[误] Everyone doubts that Tom is a spy. [正] Everyone suspects that Tom is a spy.
注：doubt作“怀疑”讲，是“不相信”的意思；而suspect作“怀疑”讲，是指“对...有所察觉”。第一句译文犯了两个错误：首先，doubt不能接that从句，只有not doubt that和doubt if/whether；其次，它所表达的意思是“大家对汤姆是间谍这件事表示怀疑”，即“大家不相信汤姆是间谍”，与原文的意思恰好相反。
[误] We are best friends. He always comes here to have meals for free.
[正] We are best friends. He always comes here to bum meals off me.
注：第一句只表明“他常到我这儿来白吃白喝”，但朋友这间那种亲密关系没有体现出来。而bum sth. off sb.指向非常熟的朋友要一些不起眼的小东西，而朋友也不会介意还不还。
21.这个教授教得很烂。[误] The professor teaches badly. [正] The professor is so terrible.
注：有人认为第二句的意思是“这个教授很可怕”，其实不然。英语中terible意思很灵活，例如：feel terrible指身体“不舒服”；The food is terrible则是说食物“难吃极了”。而第一句纯属中文式的表达。
22.我希望你不要拖我的后腿。[误] I hope that you won‘t pull my leg. [正] I hope that you won‘t hold me back.
注：pull one‘s leg是“愚弄某人，开某人的玩笑”的意思，相当于make fun of sb.。英语中与“拖后腿”相对应的表达是hold sb. back或be a drag on sb.等。
[误] At school, those big and strong guys always come to find my trouble.
[正] At school, those big and strong guys always come to pick on me.
注：find my trouble是“发现我的难处”的意思，而英语中“找某人的麻烦”用短语pick on sb.它不仅表示“挑剔某人、找某人的碴”，而且还包含tease（取笑、戏弄）或bully（威胁、欺侮）的意思。
[误] So it is. I understand soon after your explanation. [正] So that‘s how it is. I understand soon after your explanation.
注：So it is的意思是“的确如此”，它是用来表示对对方观点的赞同的。例如：A: It is a fine day today! B: So it is.
而在表达恍然大悟时，英文要用So that‘s how it is或So that explains it,或更简单地道的说法Oh, I see.
[误] Hello, monsieur, get lost?
[正] Hello, monsieur, got lost?
注：这两句译文表面上看只是时态上存在差异，其实它们的含义也截然不同。get lost是俚语：“走开，别捣乱”的意思，got lost才是“迷路”。难怪当你友好地问外宾"Get lost?"时，他并不领情呢！
Please see: http://www.rainlane.com/dispbbs.asp...64&star=1#65796
(1) get lost!: go away
"I wish he‘d get lost and stop bothering me. I don‘t want to talk to him!" ---Dennis Oliver‘s Idioms:
(2) Get lost! INFORMAL
used to tell someone forcefully and quite rudely to go away: Tell him to get lost!
(from Cambridge Advanced Learner‘s Dictionary)
(3)《英汉大词典》p.1055：We got lost in the woods.我们在森林中迷路了。
(4)张道真《现代英语用法词典》p.820-821：He lost his bearing（迷失方向）in the strange city.
(5)在...中迷路，迷失在...We were lost in the forest. We are lost in the woods.
* lost one‘e way迷路She had lost her way. Don‘t lost your way in the storm.
均收录了get lost为“迷路”；而“金山词霸2005”把“get lost”和“got lost”均列为“迷路”。但都没有例句。
1) to get lost（常用）I wouldn‘t have gotten lost, if I had asked for directions.要是我问过路，就不至于迷路了。
2) to lost one‘s way（正式）The child had lost his way.那个小孩迷路了。
3) to take the wrong road（不常用）Finally we found ourselves having taken the wrong road.
4) to go the wrong way（常用）I am we are going the wrong way.恐怕我们走错路了。
5) so lose one‘s bearings（正式）
One might lose his bearings in an unfamiliar place.一个人在不熟悉的地方最容易迷路。
6) can‘t find one‘s way（常用）
They went on in the desert until at last they couldn‘t find their way.他们在沙漠里继续走，直到他们最后迷了路。
7) to stray（正式）They strayed in the woods.他们在森林中迷路了。
（to go astray：走入迷途，走上歧途）
Today I came across get lost in The Invisible Man ---H. G. Wells:
"I‘m not trying to run away, I swear," protested Marvel tearfully. "I don‘t know these roads and I don‘t want to get lost."
[误] I had not expected that this shameful woman should flirt with her best friend‘s husband.
[正] I had not expected that this shameless woman should flirt with her best friend‘s husband.
注：shameful通常指某事物是“可耻的，丢脸的”，而shameless表示having or showing no feeling of shame; immodest or impudent,它一般用来指人“不知羞耻的，不要脸的”或“伤风败俗的”。原文也可译为：It‘s shameful that the woman should flirt with her best friend‘s husband.
[误] Doingshi imitates Xishi.
[正] The ugly imitates the beautiful in such a distorted way that the ugliness of the ugly becomes worse.
注：把原文按照字面意思直译过来，恐怕只有中国人能够理解。要想让外国人明白这个中国成语，就要对译文进行解释性加工了。同样，“情人眼里出西施”不是Xishi is in the eye of the beholder，而是Beauty is in the eye of the beholder。
[误] You don‘t study hard, yet you want to go to Oxford. What an impractical illusion!
[正] You don‘t study hard, yet you want to go to Oxford. What an illusion!
[误] I‘m it is impossible for him to agree to such a request.
[正] I‘m afreaid it is unlikely for him to agree to such a request.
注：impossible表示“完全不可能”，所以与原文有出入。在英语中，probable表示的可能性最大，其次是possible，再次是likely。而常用的句式为it is probable/possible/likely for sb. to do sth.，或sb. be likely to do sth.。
30.一群蚂蚁[误] a group of ants [正] a colony of ants
The Chinglish Files have been featured in the U.K. newspaper "The Telegraph" and on the BBC radio program "The World Today."
Chinglish: The humorous version of English that appears (often in instructions for assembling or using products) after a translation from the original Chinese (or any other language) fails to come across in "normal" English.
The term Chinglish is a fusion of the "Chin" from Chinese and the "glish" from English. Chinglish is not a racist or bigoted term and should not be taken as such. If anything, The Chinglish Files are a way of poking fun at how difficult our flawed English language can be to translate at times. It is not intended as a dig at the intelligence or linguistic capabilities of other nations. Anyway, that‘s enough "serious" discussion already... time for some fun:
(a * indicates the more popular featured pieces of Chinglish - The newest pieces of Chinglish are at the bottom of the page)
[误] The latest census shows that China‘s population has surpassed 1.2 billion.
[正] The latest census shows that China‘s population exceeds 1.2 billion.
[误] I spend 10 hours in the net bar every day, and I am indeed a net bug.
[正] I spend 10 hours in the net bar every day, and I am indeed a netter.
注：“网虫”要是直译成net bug，很容易使人联想到计算机病毒，如：the millennium bug（“千年虫”病毒）。所以，英语中与之相应的说法是netter/nettle。在《剑桥国际英语词典》里，对netter/nettle的解释是：regular user of Internet, perhaps one who spends too much time in this occupation。nethead和“网虫”的意思差不多，它表示“网痴，网迷”；而netizen则可以用来指所有的网民，尤其是互联网的用户，它是由net（网络）和citizen（公民）组合而成的。还有一个时髦的词是netsurfer，即“网上冲浪者”。
[误] John becomes a night cat every time the examination is coming. However, this is not a good way to learn.
[正] John becomes a night owl every time the examination is coming. However, this is not a good way to learn.
注：owl是“猫头鹰”的意思，即一种深夜不睡，睁一只眼，闭一只眼，准备随时捕捉田鼠的动物。英语中用night owl来比喻经常熬夜的人，就像我们习惯用“夜猫子”一样。不论叫你“夜猫子”还是a night owl，“开夜车”（burn the midnight oil）总是免不了的。
[误] Nowadays as more and more people study abroad, the overseas students are not so popular as before.
[正] Nowadays as more and more people study abroad, the returnees are not so popular as before.
[误] The playboy whispered love words to my ear with a bright moon in the sky.
[正] The playboy whispered sweet nothings to my ear with a bright moon in the sky.
注：因为“情书”是love letter，“情歌”是love song，所以不少人以为“情话”就应该是love words，其实并非如此。英语中“情话”常用lovers’ prattle或sweet nothings来表达。prattle有“孩子话，废话”的意思，所以lovers‘ prattle指“恋人之间孩子气的废话”；sweet nothings更是一目了然，有“甜蜜而不中用”的意思。
[误] Bill Gates works 15 hours a day on average, and he is crazy about his work.
[正] Bill Gates works 15 hours a day on average, and he is a workaholic.
注：crazy虽然可以作“疯狂的，狂热的”讲，但be crazy about/on sth.的意思却是“热衷于...，对...着迷”；be crazy for也不行，因为它表示“渴望（某物）；迷恋（某人）”。可见，它们都与“工作狂”有一定区别。而workaholic是从alcoholic（嗜酒成癖者）派生出来的，表示像酗酒者离不开酒精一样地离不开工作。现在人们将-holic作为一个后缀，表示“对...上瘾，嗜好...成癖”，并构成了许多新词。例如：movie-holic（嗜好电影成癖的人），telehokic（看电视成癖的人）等。
[误] Whisky for this lady, and put it on my bill. [正] Whisky for this lady, and put it on my tab.
注：我们可以说Could we have the bill, please?（请给我们账单好吗？）或pay the bill（埋单），但“记在某某的账上”却不用bill，而要用put...on one‘s tab表示。tab是“小纸片”的意思，因为过去小店的生意都是靠住在附近的老主顾，赊账时有发生，于是老板们通常把每个人的赊账情况记在各自的小纸片上，也就是put...on one‘s tab，以防遗忘。渐渐地，该词组就成了一种习惯用法。
[误] Harold spends money like dirt, and has no savings.
[正] Harold spends money like water, and has no savings.
注：英国是一个岛国，离不开水；而我们中国的许多地区深处内陆，人们的生活离不开土地。所以，英语中有许多习语与“水”有关，而汉语却常常拿“土”作比。这就是为什么同样是比喻花钱浪费，大手大脚，英语是spend money like water，而汉语却是“挥金如土”。此外，英语中还有很多有关船和水的习语，例如：rest on one‘s oars（暂时歇一歇），keep one‘s head above water（奋力图存），be all at sea（不知所措）等等。
[误] The price of the watch is dear.
[正] The watch is dear. /The price of the watch is high.
[误] We played very pleasantly last night.
[正] We enjoyed ourselves very much last night./ We had a good time last night.
注：玩牌，打球，演戏之类就用play，汉语这儿说的玩是指度过一个愉快的时候，最好译成enjoy oneself或have a good time
[误] She quarreled with her boyfriend and ran out in the big rain.
[正] She quarreled with her boyfriend and ran out in the heavy rain.
注：汉语中的“大”可以修饰很多名词，如“大风”、“大浪”、“湿气大”等，但在英语里却不能一一对应。例如，“大雨”就不能译成big rain，因为那会被人误以为是雨点大，而不是雨大。英美人形容雨大习惯用“重”（heavy），heavy rain（大雨），heavy clouds（云雾大），heavy moisture（潮气大）等，这也许是因为他们认为有些事物用重量来衡量比用体积更好吧。
[误] The fans rushed into the rest room trying to take photos with Kylie Minogue.
[正] The fans rushed into the greenroom trying to take photos with Kylie Minogue.
[误] I am painful.
[正] I feel great pain.
注：“我感到高兴”是I am happy，“我感到累了”是I‘m tired，但“我感到很痛”却不是I am painful。因为painful表示“使人痛苦的，让人疼痛或讨厌的”，它的主语往往不是人，而是事物或人体的某个部位，如：The foot is painful（脚痛），The lessons are painful（教训是惨痛的）等。所以没有I am painful这个说法，如果你非要这样说，别人会以为你全身带电或浑身长刺，别人碰了你就会疼，是你让别人痛苦，而不是你自己痛苦。
44.亚洲四小龙。[误] the Four Little Dragons of Asia [正] the Four Little Tigers of Asia
[误] one in a hundred [正] one in a thousand
注：“百里挑一”常被用来形容“很特别，很出众”或“与众不同”，one in a thousand也有相同的含义。但值得注意的是，汉语用“百”，而英语则以十倍于百的thousand来夸张。同样，汉语的“十分感谢”或“万分感谢”，英语则说a thousand thanks（千分感谢）或thanks a million times（百万次的感谢）。
[误] Many people sleep late at weekends. [正] Many people go to bed very late at weekends.
注：第一句译文错在没弄懂sleep的真正含义。英语动词有短暂动词和持续动词之分，它们分别表示短暂动作和持续的动作或状态。sleep是典型的持续动词，表示“在睡觉”。而汉语的“睡”既可表示“上床睡觉”的短暂动作，如：我昨天11点才睡；也可以表示“在睡觉”的持续动作和状态，如：他睡了整整10个小时。原文属于前一种情况，即表示“上床睡觉”的短暂动作，故应该使用go to bed。
[误] ---Cheers! Bottom up.
[正] ---Cheers! Bottoms up.
注：bottoms up虽然只比bottom up多一个s，但是两个词组的意思却相差十万八千里。bottoms up里的bottom是指“（酒杯的）底部”，那么杯朝天就是“一饮而尽”的意思，而且因为干杯时肯定不止一人一饮而尽，所以要用复数；而bottom up表示“屁股朝天”。
[误] The task is really dangerous. But someone has to take the adventure.
[正] The task is really dangerous. But someone has to bell the cat.
注：adventure指军事历险、探险旅行等惊险活动或投机活动。而bell the cat源自一个故事：一窝老鼠想在猫脖子上套一个铃铛，这样猫一来他们就会听到，并及时逃命。但主意虽好，却苦于没人去套这个铃铛（bell the cat）。后来，bell the cat被人们反复引用，表示“为大家的事去承担风险”，并成了表示原文意思最贴切的英语习语。
[误] A white car turned up to take the groom and the bride to the church.
[正] A white car turned up to take the bride and the groom to the church.
注：汉英两种语言均有各自固定的词序，因此，在翻译时要根据各自的语言习惯进行适当的调整，此处就是一个很好的例子。之所以将新娘放在前面，也许是西方文化中“女士优先”的又一体现吧！又如：“衣食住行”译成英语是food, clothing, shelter and transportation;同样，“左顾右盼”翻译成look right and left。
[误] Go and bring some water.
[正] Go and fetch some water.
(一) A is n times as great（long，much，…）as B.（①）
A is n times greater（longer，more，…）than B.（②）
A is n times the size（length，amount，…）of B.(③)
Eg. This book is three times as long as（three times longer than，three
times the length of）that one.
（二）increase to n times（④）
increase n times／n-fold（⑤）
increase by n times（⑥）
increase by a factor of n（⑦）
Eg. The production of integrated circuits has been increased to three times
as compared with last year.
Eg. The output of chemical fertilizer has been raised five times as against
Eg. That can increase metabolic rates by two or three times.
Eg. The drain voltage has been increased by a factor of four.
（三）There is a n-fold increase/growth…（⑧）
Eg. A record high increase in value of four times was reported.
Eg. The efficiency of the machines has been more than trebled or quadrupled．
A is as much（large，long，…）again as B.（= A is twice as much（large，long，…）as
A is half as much（large，1ong，…)again as B.
【= A is one and a half times as much（large，1ong，…）as B.】（11）
（一）A is n times as small（light，slow，…）as B.（12）
A is n times smaller（lighter，slower，…) than B.（13）
Eg. The hydrogen atom is near1y l6 times as light as the oxygen atom.
Eg. This sort of membrane is twice thinner than ordinary paper.
（二）decrease n times/n--fold（14）
decrease by n times（15）
decrease by a factor of n（16）
Eg. Switching time of the new-type transistor is shortened 3 times.
Eg. When the voltage is stepped up by ten times，the strength of the current
is stepped down by ten times.
Eg. The equipment reduced the error probability by a factor of 5.
（三）There is a n-fold decrease/reduction…
Eg. A rapid decrease by a factor of 7 was observed．
Eg. The principal advantage of the products is a two-fold reduction in
01 The Language of Music
A painter hangs his or her finished pictures on a wall, and everyone can see it. A composer writes a work, but no one can hear it until it is performed. Professional singers and players have great responsibilities, for the composer is utterly dependent on them. A student of music needs as long and as arduous a training to become a performer as a medical student needs to become a doctor. Most training is concerned with technique, for musicians have to have the muscular proficiency of an athlete or a ballet dancer. Singers practice breathing every day, as their vocal chords would be inadequate without controlled muscular support. String players practice moving the fingers of the left hand up and down, while drawing the bow to and fro with the right arm—two entirely different movements.
Singers and instruments have to be able to get every note perfectly in tune. Pianists are spared this particular anxiety, for the notes are already there, waiting for them, and it is the piano tuner’s responsibility to tune the instrument for them. But they have their own difficulties; the hammers that hit the string have to be coaxed not to sound like percussion, and each overlapping tone has to sound clear.
This problem of getting clear texture is one that confronts student conductors: they have to learn to know every note of the music and how it should sound, and they have to aim at controlling these sound with fanatical but selfless authority.
Technique is of no use unless it is combined with musical knowledge and understanding. Great artists are those who are so thoroughly at home in the language of music that they can enjoy performing works written in any century.
02 Schooling and Education
It is commonly believed in United States that school is where people go to get an education. Nevertheless, it has been said that today children interrupt their education to go to school. The distinction between schooling and education implied by this remark is important.
Education is much more open-ended and all-inclusive than schooling. Education knows no bounds. It can take place anywhere, whether in the shower or in the job, whether in a kitchen or on a tractor. It includes both the formal learning that takes place in schools and the whole universe of informal learning. The agents of education can range from a revered grandparent to the people debating politics on the radio, from a child to a distinguished scientist. Whereas schooling has a certain predictability, education quite often produces surprises. A chance conversation with a stranger may lead a person to discover how little is known of other religions. People are engaged in education from infancy on. Education, then, is a very broad, inclusive term. It is a lifelong process, a process that starts long before the start of school, and one that should be an integral part of one’s entire life.
Schooling, on the other hand, is a specific, formalized process, whose general pattern varies little from one setting to the next. Throughout a country, children arrive at school at approximately the same time, take assigned seats, are taught by an adult, use similar textbooks, do homework, take exams, and so on. The slices of reality that are to be learned, whether they are the alphabet or an understanding of the working of government, have usually been limited by the boundaries of the subject being taught. For example, high school students know that there not likely to find out in their classes the truth about political problems in their communities or what the newest filmmakers are experimenting with. There are definite conditions surrounding the formalized process of schooling.
03 The Definition of“Price”
Prices determine how resources are to be used. They are also the means by which products and services that are in limited supply are rationed among buyers. The price system of the United States is a complex network composed of the prices of all the products bought and sold in the economy as well as those of a myriad of services, including labor, professional, transportation, and public-utility services. The interrelationships of all these prices make up the“system”of prices. The price of any particular product or service is linked to a broad, complicated system of prices in which everything seems to depend more or less upon everything else.
If one were to ask a group of randomly selected individuals to define“price”, many would reply that price is an amount of money paid by the buyer to the seller of a product or service or, in other words that price is the money values of a product or service as agreed upon in a market transaction. This definition is, of course, valid as far as it goes. For a complete understanding of a price in any particular transaction, much more than the amount of money involved must be known. Both the buyer and the seller should be familiar with not only the money amount, but with the amount and quality of the product or service to be exchanged, the time and place at which the exchange will take place and payment will be made, the form of money to be used, the credit terms and discounts that apply to the transaction, guarantees on the product or service, delivery terms, return privileges, and other factors. In other words, both buyer and seller should be fully aware of all the factors that comprise the total“package”being exchanged for the asked-for amount of money in order that they may evaluate a given price.
The modern age is an age of electricity. People are so used to electric lights, radio, televisions, and telephones that it is hard to imagine what life would be like without them. When there is a power failure, people grope about in flickering candlelight, cars hesitate in the streets because there are no traffic lights to guide them, and food spoils in silent refrigerators.
Yet, people began to understand how electricity works only a little more than two centuries ago. Nature has apparently been experimenting in this field for million of years. Scientists are discovering more and more that the living world may hold many interesting secrets of electricity that could benefit humanity.
All living cell send out tiny pulses of electricity. As the heart beats, it sends out pulses of record; they form an electrocardiogram, which a doctor can study to determine how well the heart is working. The brain, too, sends out brain waves of electricity, which can be recorded in an electroencephalogram. The electric currents generated by most living cells are extremely small–often so small that sensitive instruments are needed to record them. But in some animals, certain muscle cells have become so specialized as electrical generators that they do not work as muscle cells at all. When large numbers of these cell are linked together, the effects can be astonishing.
The electric eel is an amazing storage battery. It can seed a jolt of as much as eight hundred volts of electricity through the water in which it live. ( An electric house current is only one hundred twenty volts.) As many as four-fifths of all the cells in the electric eel’s body are specialized for generating electricity, and the strength of the shock it can deliver corresponds roughly to length of its body.
05 The Beginning of Drama
There are many theories about the beginning of drama in ancient Greece. The on most widely accepted today is based on the assumption that drama evolved from ritual. The argument for this view goes as follows. In the beginning, human beings viewed the natural forces of the world-even the seasonal changes-as unpredictable, and they sought through various means to control these unknown and feared powers. Those measures which appeared to bring the desired results were then retained and repeated until they hardened into fixed rituals. Eventually stories arose which explained or veiled the mysteries of the rites. As time passed some rituals were abandoned, but the stories, later called myths, persisted and provided material for art and drama.
Those who believe that drama evolved out of ritual also argue that those rites contained the seed of theater because music, dance, masks, and costumes were almost always used, Furthermore, a suitable site had to be provided for performances and when the entire community did not participate, a clear division was usually made between the "acting area" and the "auditorium." In addition, there were performers, and, since considerable importance was attached to avoiding mistakes in the enactment of rites, religious leaders usually assumed that task. Wearing masks and costumes, they often impersonated other people, animals, or supernatural beings, and mimed the desired effect-success in hunt or battle, the coming rain, the revival of the Sun-as an actor might. Eventually such dramatic representations were separated from religious activities.
Another theory traces the theater's origin from the human interest in storytelling. According to this vies tales (about the hunt, war, or other feats) are gradually elaborated, at first through the use of impersonation, action, and dialogue by a narrator and then through the assumption of each of the roles by a different person. A closely related theory traces theater to those dances that are primarily rhythmical and gymnastic or that are imitations of animal movements and sounds.
Television-----the most pervasive and persuasive of modern technologies, marked by rapid change and growth-is moving into a new era, an era of extraordinary sophistication and versatility, which promises to reshape our lives and our world. It is an electronic revolution of sorts, made possible by the marriage of television and computer technologies.
The word "television", derived from its Greek (tele: distant) and Latin (visio: sight) roots, can literally be interpreted as sight from a distance. Very simply put, it works in this way: through a sophisticated system of electronics, television provides the capability of converting an image (focused on a special photoconductive plate within a camera) into electronic impulses, which can be sent through a wire or cable. These impulses, when fed into a receiver (television set), can then be electronically reconstituted into that same image.
Television is more than just an electronic system, however. It is a means of expression, as well as a vehicle for communication, and as such becomes a powerful tool for reaching other human beings.
The field of television can be divided into two categories determined by its means of transmission. First, there is broadcast television, which reaches the masses through broad-based airwave transmission of television signals. Second, there is nonbroadcast television, which provides for the needs of individuals or specific interest groups through controlled transmission techniques.
Traditionally, television has been a medium of the masses. We are most familiar with broadcast television because it has been with us for about thirty-seven years in a form similar to what exists today. During those years, it has been controlled, for the most part, by the broadcast networks, ABC, NBC, and CBS, who have been the major purveyors of news, information, and entertainment. These giants of broadcasting have actually shaped not only television but our perception of it as well. We have come to look upon the picture tube as a source of entertainment, placing our role in this dynamic medium as the passive viewer.
07 Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie, known as the King of Steel, built the steel industry in the United States, and , in the process, became one of the wealthiest men in America. His success resulted in part from his ability to sell the product and in part from his policy of expanding during periods of economic decline, when most of his competitors were reducing their investments.
Carnegie believed that individuals should progress through hard work, but he also felt strongly that the wealthy should use their fortunes for the benefit of society. He opposed charity, preferring instead to provide educational opportunities that would allow others to help themselves. "He who dies rich, dies disgraced," he often said.
Among his more noteworthy contributions to society are those that bear his name, including the Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh, which has a library, a museum of fine arts, and a museum of national history. He also founded a school of technology that is now part of Carnegie-Mellon University. Other philanthrophic gifts are the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace to promote understanding between nations, the Carnegie Institute of Washington to fund scientific research, and Carnegie Hall to provide a center for the arts.
Few Americans have been left untouched by Andrew Carnegie's generosity. His contributions of more than five million dollars established 2,500 libraries in small communities throughout the country and formed the nucleus of the public library system that we all enjoy today.
08 American Revolution
The American Revolution was not a sudden and violent overturning of the political and social framework, such as later occurred in France and Russia, when both were already independent nations. Significant changes were ushered in, but they were not breathtaking. What happened was accelerated evolution rather than outright revolution. During the conflict itself people went on working and praying, marrying and playing. Most of them were not seriously disturbed by the actual fighting, and many of the more isolated communities scarcely knew that a war was on.
America's War of Independence heralded the birth of three modern nations. One was Canada, which received its first large influx of English-speaking population from the thousands of loyalists who fled there from the United States. Another was Australia, which became a penal colony now that America was no longer available for prisoners and debtors. The third newcomer-the United States-based itself squarely on republican principles.
Yet even the political overturn was not so revolutionary as one might suppose. In some states, notably Connecticut and Rhode Island, the war largely ratified a colonial self-rule already existing. British officials, everywhere ousted, were replaced by a home-grown governing class, which promptly sought a local substitute for king and Parliament.
If by "suburb" is meant an urban margin that grows more rapidly than its already developed interior, the process of suburbanization began during the emergence of the industrial city in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Before that period the city was a small highly compact cluster in which people moved about on foot and goods were conveyed by horse and cart. But the early factories built in the 1840's were located along waterways and near railheads at the edges of cities, and housing was needed for the thousands of people drawn by the prospect of employment. In time, the factories were surrounded by proliferating mill towns of apartments and row houses that abutted the older, main cities. As a defense against this encroachment and to enlarge their tax bases, the cities appropriated their industrial neighbors. In 1854, for example, the city of Philadelphia annexed most of Philadelphia County. Similar municipal maneuvers took place in Chicago and in New York. Indeed, most great cities of the United States achieved such status only by incorporating the communities along their borders.
With the acceleration of industrial growth came acute urban crowding and accompanying social stress-conditions that began to approach disastrous proportions when, in 1888, the first commercially successful electric traction line was developed. Within a few years the horse-drawn trolleys were retired and electric streetcar networks crisscrossed and connected every major urban area, fostering a wave of suburbanization that transformed the compact industrial city into a dispersed metropolis. This first phase of mass-scale suburbanization was reinforced by the simultaneous emergence of the urban Middle Class, whose desires for homeownership in neighborhoods far from the aging inner city were satisfied by the developers of single-family housing tracts.
10 Types of Speech
Standard usage includes those words and expressions understood, used, and accepted by a majority of the speakers of a language in any situation regardless of the level of formality. As such, these words and expressions are well defined and listed in standard dictionaries. Colloquialisms, on the other hand, are familiar words and idioms that are understood by almost all speakers of a language and used in informal speech or writing, but not considered appropriate for more formal situations. Almost all idiomatic expressions are colloquial language. Slang, however, refers to words and expressions understood by a large number of speakers but not accepted as good, formal usage by the majority. Colloquial expressions and even slang may be found in standard dictionaries but will be so identified. Both colloquial usage and slang are more common in speech than in writing.
Colloquial speech often passes into standard speech. Some slang also passes into standard speech, but other slang expressions enjoy momentary popularity followed by obscurity. In some cases, the majority never accepts certain slang phrases but nevertheless retains them in their collective memories. Every generation seems to require its own set of words to describe familiar objects and events. It has been pointed out by a number of linguists that three cultural conditions are necessary for the creation of a large body of slang expressions. First, the introduction and acceptance of new objects and situations in the society; second, a diverse population with a large number of subgroups; third, association among the subgroups and the majority population.
Finally, it is worth noting that the terms "standard" "colloquial" and "slang" exist only as abstract labels for scholars who study language. Only a tiny number of the speakers of any language will be aware that they are using colloquial or slang expressions. Most speakers of English will, during appropriate situations, select and use all three types of expressions.
Archaeology is a source of history, not just a bumble auxiliary discipline. Archaeological data are historical documents in their own right, not mere illustrations to written texts, Just as much as any other historian, an archaeologist studies and tries to reconstitute the process that has created the human world in which we live - and us ourselves in so far as we are each creatures of our age and social environment. Archaeological data are all changes in the material world resulting from human action or, more succinctly, the fossilized results of human behavior. The sum total of these constitutes what may be called the archaeological record. This record exhibits certain peculiarities and deficiencies the consequences of which produce a rather superficial contrast between archaeological history and the more familiar kind based upon written records.
Not all human behavior fossilizes. The words I utter and you hear as vibrations in the air are certainly human changes in the material world and may be of great historical significance. Yet they leave no sort of trace in the archaeological records unless they are captured by a dictaphone or written down by a clerk. The movement of troops on the battlefield may "change the course of history," but this is equally ephemeral from the archaeologist's standpoint. What is perhaps worse, most organic materials are perishable. Everything made of wood, hide, wool, linen, grass, hair, and similar materials will decay and vanish in dust in a few years or centuries, save under very exceptional conditions. In a relatively brief period the archaeological record is reduce to mere scraps of stone, bone, glass, metal, and earthenware. Still modern archaeology, by applying appropriate techniques and comparative methods, aided by a few lucky finds from peat-bogs, deserts, and frozen soils, is able to fill up a good deal of the gap.
From Boston to Los Angeles, from New York City to Chicago to Dallas, museums are either planning, building, or wrapping up wholesale expansion programs. These programs already have radically altered facades and floor plans or are expected to do so in the not-too-distant future.
In New York City alone, six major institutions have spread up and out into the air space and neighborhoods around them or are preparing to do so.
The reasons for this confluence of activity are complex, but one factor is a consideration everywhere - space. With collections expanding, with the needs and functions of museums changing, empty space has become a very precious commodity.
Probably nowhere in the country is this more true than at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, which has needed additional space for decades and which received its last significant facelift ten years ago. Because of the space crunch, the Art Museum has become increasingly cautious in considering acquisitions and donations of art, in some cases passing up opportunities to strengthen its collections.
Deaccessing - or selling off - works of art has taken on new importance because of the museum's space problems. And increasingly, curators have been forced to juggle gallery space, rotating one masterpiece into public view while another is sent to storage.
Despite the clear need for additional gallery and storage space, however," the museum has no plan, no plan to break out of its envelope in the next fifteen years," according to Philadelphia Museum of Art's president.
13 Skyscrapers and Environment
In the late 1960's, many people in North America turned their attention to environmental problems, and new steel-and-glass skyscrapers were widely criticized. Ecologists pointed out that a cluster of tall buildings in a city often overburdens public transportation and parking lot capacities.
Skyscrapers are also lavish consumers, and wasters, of electric power. In one recent year, the addition of 17 million square feet of skyscraper office space in New York City raised the peak daily demand for electricity by 120, 000 kilowatts-enough to supply the entire city of Albany, New York, for a day.
Glass-walled skyscrapers can be especially wasteful. The heat loss (or gain)through a wall of half-inch plate glass is more than ten times that through a typical masonry wall filled with insulation board. To lessen the strain on heating and air-conditioning equipment, builders of skyscrapers have begun to use double-glazed panels of glass, and reflective glasses coated with silver or gold mirror films that reduce glare as well as heat gain. However, mirror-walled skyscrapers raise the temperature of the surrounding air and affect neighboring buildings.
Skyscrapers put a severe strain on a city's sanitation facilities, too. If fully occupied, the two World Trade Center towers in New York City would alone generate 2.25 million gallons of raw sewage each year-as much as a city the size of Stanford, Connecticut , which has a population of more than 109, 000.
14 A Rare Fossil Record
The preservation of embryos and juveniles is a rate occurrence in the fossil record. The tiny, delicate skeletons are usually scattered by scavengers or destroyed by weathering before they can be fossilized. Ichthyosaurs had a higher chance of being preserved than did terrestrial creatures because, as marine animals, they tended to live in environments less subject to erosion. Still, their fossilization required a suite of factors: a slow rate of decay of soft tissues, little scavenging by other animals, a lack of swift currents and waves to jumble and carry away small bones, and fairly rapid burial. Given these factors, some areas have become a treasury of well-preserved ichthyosaur fossils.
The deposits at Holzmaden, Germany, present an interesting case for analysis. The ichthyosaur remains are found in black, bituminous marine shales deposited about 190 million years ago. Over the years, thousands of specimens of marine reptiles, fish and invertebrates have been recovered from these rocks. The quality of preservation is outstanding, but what is even more impressive is the number of ichthyosaur fossils containing preserved embryos. Ichthyosaurs with embryos have been reported from 6 different levels of the shale in a small area around Holzmaden, suggesting that a specific site was used by large numbers of ichthyosaurs repeatedly over time. The embryos are quite advanced in their physical development; their paddles, for example, are already well formed. One specimen is even preserved in the birth canal. In addition, the shale contains the remains of many newborns that are between 20 and 30 inches long.
Why are there so many pregnant females and young at Holzmaden when they are so rare elsewhere? The quality of preservation is almost unmatched and quarry operations have been carried out carefully with an awareness of the value of the fossils. But these factors do not account for the interesting question of how there came to be such a concentration of pregnant ichthyosaurs in a particular place very close to their time of giving birth.
15 The Nobel Academy
For the last 82years, Sweden's Nobel Academy has decided who will receive the Nobel Prize in Literature, thereby determining who will be elevated from the great and the near great to the immortal. But today the Academy is coming under heavy criticism both from the without and from within. Critics contend that the selection of the winners often has less to do with true writing ability than with the peculiar internal politics of the Academy and of Sweden itself. According to Ingmar Bjorksten , the cultural editor for one of the country's two major newspapers, the prize continues to represent "what people call a very Swedish exercise: reflecting Swedish tastes."
The Academy has defended itself against such charges of provincialism in its selection by asserting that its physical distance from the great literary capitals of the world actually serves to protect the Academy from outside influences. This may well be true, but critics respond that this very distance may also be responsible for the Academy's inability to perceive accurately authentic trends in the literary world.
Regardless of concerns over the selection process, however, it seems that the prize will continue to survive both as an indicator of the literature that we most highly praise, and as an elusive goal that writers seek. If for no other reason, the prize will continue to be desirable for the financial rewards that accompany it; not only is the cash prize itself considerable, but it also dramatically increases sales of an author's books.
16. the war between Britain and France
In the late eighteenth century, battles raged in almost every corner of Europe, as well as in the Middle East, south Africa ,the West Indies, and Latin America. In reality, however, there was only one major war during this time, the war between Britain and France. All other battles were ancillary to this larger conflict, and were often at least partially related to its antagonist’goals and strategies. France sought total domination of Europe . this goal was obstructed by British independence and Britain’s efforts throughout the continent to thwart Napoleon; through treaties. Britain built coalitions (not dissimilar in concept to today’s NATO) guaranteeing British participation in all major European conflicts. These two antagonists were poorly matched, insofar as they had very unequal strengths; France was predominant on land, Britain at sea. The French knew that, short of defeating the British navy, their only hope of victory was to close all the ports of Europe to British ships. Accordingly, France set out to overcome Britain by extending its military domination from Moscow t Lisbon, from Jutland to Calabria. All of this entailed tremendous risk, because France did not have the military resources to control this much territory and still protect itself and maintain order at home.
French strategists calculated that a navy of 150 ships would provide the force necessary to defeat the British navy. Such a force would give France a three-to-two advantage over Britain. This advantage was deemed necessary because of Britain’s superior sea skills and technology because of Britain’s superior sea skills and technology, and also because Britain would be fighting a defensive war, allowing it to win with fewer forces. Napoleon never lost substantial impediment to his control of Europe. As his force neared that goal, Napoleon grew increasingly impatient and began planning an immediate attack.
17.Evolution of sleep
Sleep is very ancient. In the electroencephalographic sense we share it with all the primates and almost all the other mammals and birds: it may extend back as far as the reptiles.
There is some evidence that the two types of sleep, dreaming and dreamless, depend on the life-style of the animal, and that predators are statistically much more likely to dream than prey, which are in turn much more likely to experience dreamless sleep. In dream sleep, the animal is powerfully immobilized and remarkably unresponsive to external stimuli. Dreamless sleep is much shallower, and we have all witnessed cats or dogs cocking their ears to a sound when apparently fast asleep. The fact that deep dream sleep is rare among pray today seems clearly to be a product of natural selection, and it makes sense that today, when sleep is highly evolved, the stupid animals are less frequently immobilized by deep sleep than the smart ones. But why should they sleep deeply at all? Why should a state of such deep immobilization ever have evolved?
Perhaps one useful hint about the original function of sleep is to be found in the fact that dolphins and whales and aquatic mammals in genera seem to sleep very little. There is, by and large, no place to hide in the ocean. Could it be that, rather than increasing an animal’s vulnerability, the University of Florida and Ray Meddis of London University have suggested this to be the case. It is conceivable that animals who are too stupid to be quite on their own initiative are, during periods of high risk, immobilized by the implacable arm of sleep. The point seems particularly clear for the young of predatory animals. This is an interesting notion and probably at least partly true.
18. Modern American Universities
Before the 1850’s, the United States had a number of small colleges, most of them dating from colonial days. They were small, church connected institutions whose primary concern was to shape the moral character of their students.
Throughout Europe, institutions of higher learning had developed, bearing the ancient name of university. In German university was concerned primarily with creating and spreading knowledge, not morals. Between mid-century and the end of the 1800’s, more than nine thousand young Americans, dissatisfied with their training at home, went to Germany for advanced study. Some of them return to become presidents of venerable colleges-----Harvard, Yale, Columbia---and transform them into modern universities. The new presidents broke all ties with the churches and brought in a new kind of faculty. Professors were hired for their knowledge of a subject, not because they were of the proper faith and had a strong arm for disciplining students. The new principle was that a university was to create knowledge as well as pass it on, and this called for a faculty composed of teacher-scholars. Drilling and learning by rote were replaced by the German method of lecturing, in which the professor’s own research was presented in class. Graduate training leading to the Ph.D., an ancient German degree signifying the highest level of advanced scholarly attainment, was introduced. With the establishment of the seminar system, graduate student learned to question, analyze, and conduct their own research.
At the same time, the new university greatly expanded in size and course offerings, breaking completely out of the old, constricted curriculum of mathematics, classics, rhetoric, and music. The president of Harvard pioneered the elective system, by which students were able to choose their own course of study. The notion of major fields of study emerged. The new goal was to make the university relevant to the real pursuits of the world. Paying close heed to the practical needs of society, the new universities trained men and women to work at its tasks, with engineering students being the most characteristic of the new regime. Students were also trained as economists, architects, agriculturalists, social welfare workers, and teachers.
19. Children’s numerical skills
people appear to born to compute. The numerical skills of children develop so early and so inexorably that it is easy to imagine an internal clock of mathematical maturity guiding their growth. Not long after learning to walk and talk, they can set the table with impress accuracy---one knife, one spoon, one fork, for each of the five chairs. Soon they are capable of nothing that they have placed five knives, spoons and forks on the table and, a bit later, that this amounts to fifteen pieces of silverware. Having thus mastered addition, they move on to subtraction. It seems almost reasonable to expect that if a child were secluded on a desert island at birth and retrieved seven years later, he or she could enter a second enter a second-grade mathematics class without any serious problems of intellectual adjustment.
Of course, the truth is not so simple. This century, the work of cognitive psychologists has illuminated the subtle forms of daily learning on which intellectual progress depends. Children were observed as they slowly grasped-----or, as the case might be, bumped into-----concepts that adults take for quantity is unchanged as water pours from a short glass into a tall thin one. Psychologists have since demonstrated that young children, asked to count the pencils in a pile, readily report the number of blue or red pencils, but must be coaxed into finding the total. Such studies have suggested that the rudiments of mathematics are mastered gradually, and with effort. They have also suggested that the very concept of abstract numbers------the idea of a oneness,
a twoness, a threeness that applies to any class of objects and is a prerequisite for doing anything more mathematically demanding than setting a table-----is itself far from innate
20 The Historical Significance of American Revolution
The ways of history are so intricate and the motivations of human actions so complex that it is always hazardous to attempt to represent events covering a number of years, a multiplicity of persons, and distant localities as the expression of one intellectual or social movement; yet the historical process which culminated in the ascent of Thomas Jefferson to the presidency can be regarded as the outstanding example not only of the birth of a new way of life but of nationalism as a new way of life. The American Revolution represents the link between the seventeenth century, in which modern England became conscious of itself, and the awakening of modern Europe at the end of the eighteenth century. It may seem strange that the march of history should have had to cross the Atlantic Ocean, but only in the North American colonies could a struggle for civic liberty lead also to the foundation of a new nation. Here, in the popular rising against a“tyrannical”government, the fruits were more than the securing of a freer constitution. They included the growth of a nation born in liberty by the will of the people, not from the roots of common descent, a geographic entity, or the ambitions of king or dynasty. With the American nation, for the first time, a nation was born, not in the dim past of history but before the eyes of the whole world.
21 The Origin of Sports
When did sport begin? If sport is, in essence, play, the claim might be made that sport is much older than humankind, for , as we all have observed, the beasts play. Dogs and cats wrestle and play ball games. Fishes and birds dance. The apes have simple, pleasurable games. Frolicking infants, school children playing tag, and adult arm wrestlers are demonstrating strong, transgenerational and transspecies bonds with the universe of animals–past, present, and future. Young animals, particularly, tumble, chase, run wrestle, mock, imitate, and laugh (or so it seems) to the point of delighted exhaustion. Their play, and ours, appears to serve no other purpose than to give pleasure to the players, and apparently, to remove us temporarily from the anguish of life in earnest.
Some philosophers have claimed that our playfulness is the most noble part of our basic nature. In their generous conceptions, play harmlessly and experimentally permits us to put our creative forces, fantasy, and imagination into action. Play is release from the tedious battles against scarcity and decline which are the incessant, and inevitable, tragedies of life. This is a grand conception that excites and provokes. The holders of this view claim that the origins of our highest accomplishments ---- liturgy, literature, and law ---- can be traced to a play impulse which, paradoxically, we see most purely enjoyed by young beasts and children. Our sports, in this rather happy, nonfatalistic view of human nature, are more splendid creations of the nondatable, transspecies play impulse.
Collectibles have been a part of almost every culture since ancient times. Whereas some objects have been collected for their usefulness, others have been selected for their aesthetic beauty alone. In the United States, the kinds of collectibles currently popular range from traditional objects such as stamps, coins, rare books, and art to more recent items of interest like dolls, bottles, baseball cards, and comic books.
Interest in collectibles has increased enormously during the past decade, in part because some collectibles have demonstrated their value as investments. Especially during cycles of high inflation, investors try to purchase tangibles that will at least retain their current market values. In general, the most traditional collectibles will be sought because they have preserved their value over the years, there is an organized auction market for them, and they are most easily sold in the event that cash is needed. Some examples of the most stable collectibles are old masters, Chinese ceramics, stamps, coins, rare books, antique jewelry, silver, porcelain, art by well-known artists, autographs, and period furniture. Other items of more recent interest include old photograph records, old magazines, post cards, baseball cards, art glass, dolls, classic cars, old bottles, and comic books. These relatively new kinds of collectibles may actually appreciate faster as short-term investments, but may not hold their value as long-term investments. Once a collectible has had its initial play, it appreciates at a fairly steady rate, supported by an increasing number of enthusiastic collectors competing for the limited supply of collectibles that become increasingly more difficult to locate.
Although Henry Ford’s name is closely associated with the concept of mass production, he should receive equal credit for introducing labor practices as early as 1913 that would be considered advanced even by today’s standards. Safety measures were improved, and the work day was reduced to eight hours, compared with the ten-or twelve-hour day common at the time. In order to accommodate the shorter work day, the entire factory was converted from two to three shifts.
In addition, sick leaves as well as improved medical care for those injured on the job were instituted. The Ford Motor Company was one of the first factories to develop a technical school to train specialized skilled laborers and an English language school for immigrants. Some efforts were even made to hire the handicapped and provide jobs for former convicts.
The most widely acclaimed innovation was the five-dollar-a-day minimum wage that was offered in order to recruit and retain the best mechanics and to discourage the growth of labor unions. Ford explained the new wage policy in terms of efficiency and profit sharing. He also mentioned the fact that his employees would be able to purchase the automobiles that they produced–in effect creating a market for the product. In order to qualify for the minimum wage, an employee had to establish a decent home and demonstrate good personal habits, including sobriety, thriftiness, industriousness, and dependability. Although some criticism was directed at Ford for involving himself too much in the personal lives of his employees, there can be no doubt that, at a time when immigrants were being taken advantage of in frightful ways, Henry Ford was helping many people to establish themselves in America.
The ancestry of the piano can be traced to the early keyboard instruments of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries --- the spinet, the dulcimer, and the virginal. In the seventeenth century the organ, the clavichord, and the harpsichord became the chief instruments of the keyboard group, a supremacy they maintained until the piano supplanted them at the end of the eighteenth century. The clavichord’s tone was metallic and never powerful; nevertheless, because of the variety of tone possible to it, many composers found the clavichord a sympathetic instrument for intimate chamber music. The harpsichord with its bright, vigorous tone was the favorite instrument for supporting the bass of the small orchestra of the period and for concert use, but the character of the tone could not be varied save by mechanical or structural devices.
The piano was perfected in the early eighteenth century by a harpsichord maker in Italy (though musicologists point out several previous instances of the instrument). This instrument was called a piano e forte (sort and loud), to indicate its dynamic versatility; its strings were struck by a recoiling hammer with a felt-padded head. The wires were much heavier in the earlier instruments. A series of mechanical improvements continuing well into the nineteenth century, including the introduction of pedals to sustain tone or to soften it, the perfection of a metal frame, and steel wire of the finest quality, finally produced an instrument capable of myriad tonal effects from the most delicate harmonies to an almost orchestral fullness of sound, from a liquid, singing tone to a sharp, percussive brilliance.
1.The strings (弦乐)
1) plectrum: harp, lute, guitar, mandolin;
2) keyboard: clavichord, harpsichord, piano;
3) bow: violin, viola, cello, double bass.
2. The Wood（木管）—winds : piccolo, flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, English horn;
3. the brass（铜管）: French horn, trumpet, trombone, cornet, tuba, bugle, saxophone;
4.the percussion（打击组）: kettle drum, bass drum, snare drum, castanet, xylophone, celesta, cymbal, tambourine.
25. Movie Music
Accustomed though we are to speaking of the films made before 1927 as“silent”, the film has never been, in the full sense of the word, silent. From the very beginning, music was regarded as an indispensable accompaniment; when the Lumiere films were shown at the first public film exhibition in the United States in February 1896, they were accompanied by piano improvisations on popular tunes. At first, the music played bore no special relationship to the films; an accompaniment of any kind was sufficient. Within a very short time, however, the incongruity of playing lively music to a solemn film became apparent, and film pianists began to take some care in matching their pieces to the mood of the film.
As movie theaters grew in number and importance, a violinist, and perhaps a cellist, would be added to the pianist in certain cases, and in the larger movie theaters small orchestras were formed. For a number of years the selection of music for each film program rested entirely in the hands of the conductor or leader of the orchestra, and very often the principal qualification for holding such a position was not skill or taste so much as the ownership of a large personal library of musical pieces. Since the conductor seldom saw the films until the night before they were to be shown(if indeed, the conductor was lucky enough to see them then), the musical arrangement was normally improvised in the greatest hurry.
To help meet this difficulty, film distributing companies started the practice of publishing suggestions for musical accompaniments. In 1909, for example, the Edison Company began issuing with their films such indications of mood as“pleasant”,“sad”,“lively”. The suggestions became more explicit, and so emerged the musical cue sheet containing indications of mood, the titles of suitable pieces of music, and precise directions to show where one piece led into the next.
Certain films had music especially composed for them. The most famous of these early special scores was that composed and arranged for D.W Griffith’s film Birth of a Nation, which was released in 1915.
1) traditional jazz---- a) blues,代表人物：Billy Holiday
c)New Orleans jazz (= Dixieland jazz) eg: Louis Armstron
d)swing eg: Glenn Miller, Duke Ellington, etc.
e)bop (=bebop, rebop) eg: Lester Young, Charlie Parker etc.
2)modern jazz ------ a) cool jazz(=progressive jazz)高雅爵士乐。Eg: Kenny G.
b)third-stream jazz. Eg: Charles Mingus, John Lewis.
c) main stream jazz.
e) soul jazz. Eg: Sarah Vaughn, Ella Fitzgerald
f) Latin jazz.
2.gospel music福音音乐，主要源于Nero spirituals. Eg. Dolly Parker, Mahalia Jackson
3.Country and Western music. Eg. John Denver, Tammy Wynette, Kenny Rogers, etc.
4. Rock music-----------a) rock and roll eg: Elvis Prestley(US) , the Beatles(UK.)
b)folk rock Eg: Bob Dylon, Michael Jackson, Mariah Carey, Bruce Springsteen, Lionel Riche etc.
e)rock jazz eg: M.J. McLaughlin
f) Jurassic rock
5.Music for easy listening (i.e. light music )
26. International Business and Cross-cultural Communication
The increase in international business and in foreign investment has created a need for executives with knowledge of foreign languages and skills in cross-cultural communication. Americans, however, have not been well trained in either area and, consequently, have not enjoyed the same level of success in negotiation in an international arena as have their foreign counterparts.
Negotiating is the process of communicating back and forth for the purpose of reaching an agreement. It involves persuasion and compromise, but in order to participate in either one, the negotiators must understand the ways in which people are persuaded and how compromise is reached within the culture of the negotiation.
In many international business negotiations abroad, Americans are perceived as wealthy and impersonal. It often appears to the foreign negotiator that the American represents a large multi-million-dollar corporation that can afford to pay the price without bargaining further. The American negotiator’s role becomes that of an impersonal purveyor of information and cash.
In studies of American negotiators abroad, several traits have been identified that may serve to confirm this stereotypical perception, while undermining the negotiator’s position. Two traits in particular that cause cross-cultural misunderstanding are directness and impatience on the part of the American negotiator. Furthermore, American negotiators often insist on realizing short-term goals. Foreign negotiators, on the other hand, may value the relationship established between negotiators and may be willing to invest time in it for long-term benefits. In order to solidify the relationship, they may opt for indirect interactions without regard for the time involved in getting to know the other negotiator.
27. Scientific Theories
In science, a theory is a reasonable explanation of observed events that are related. A theory often involves an imaginary model that helps scientists picture the way an observed event could be produced. A good example of this is found in the kinetic molecular theory, in which gases are pictured as being made up of many small particles that are in constant motion.
A useful theory, in addition to explaining past observations, helps to predict events that have not as yet been observed. After a theory has been publicized, scientists design experiments to test the theory. If observations confirm the scientist’s predictions, the theory is supported. If observations do not confirm the predictions, the scientists must search further. There may be a fault in the experiment, or the theory may have to be revised or rejected.
Science involves imagination and creative thinking as well as collecting information and performing experiments. Facts by themselves are not science. As the mathematician Jules Henri Poincare said,“Science is built with facts just as a house is built with bricks, but a collection of facts cannot be called science any more than a pile of bricks can be called a house.”
Most scientists start an investigation by finding out what other scientists have learned about a particular problem. After known facts have been gathered, the scientist comes to the part of the investigation that requires considerable imagination. Possible solutions to the problem are formulated. These possible solutions are called hypotheses.
In a way, any hypothesis is a leap into the unknown. It extends the scientist’s thinking beyond the known facts. The scientist plans experiments, performs calculations, and makes observations to test hypotheses. Without hypothesis, further investigation lacks purpose and direction. When hypotheses are confirmed, they are incorporated into theories.
28.Changing Roles of Public Education
One of the most important social developments that helped to make possible a shift in thinking about the role of public education was the effect of the baby boom of the 1950's and 1960's on the schools. In the 1920's, but especially in the Depression conditions of the 1930's, the United States experienced a declining birth rate --- every thousand women aged fifteen to forty-four gave birth to about 118 live children in 1920, 89.2 in 1930, 75.8 in 1936, and 80 in 1940. With the growing prosperity brought on by the Second World War and the economic boom that followed it young people married and established households earlier and began to raise larger families than had their predecessors during the Depression. Birth rates rose to 102 per thousand in 1946,106.2 in 1950, and 118 in 1955. Although economics was probably the most important determinant, it is not the only explanation for the baby boom. The increased value placed on the idea of the family also helps to explain this rise in birth rates. The baby boomers began streaming into the first grade by the mid 1940's and became a flood by 1950. The public school system suddenly found itself overtaxed. While the number of schoolchildren rose because of wartime and postwar conditions, these same conditions made the schools even less prepared to cope with the food. The wartime economy meant that few new schools were built between 1940 and 1945. Moreover, during the war and in the boom times that followed, large numbers of teachers left their profession for better-paying jobs elsewhere in the economy.
Therefore in the 1950’s and 1960’s, the baby boom hit an antiquated and inadequate school system. Consequently, the“custodial rhetoric”of the 1930’s and early 1940’s no longer made sense that is, keeping youths aged sixteen and older out of the labor market by keeping them in school could no longer be a high priority for an institution unable to find space and staff to teach younger children aged five to sixteen. With the baby boom, the focus of educators and of laymen interested in education inevitably turned toward the lower grades and back to basic academic skills and discipline. The system no longer had much interest in offering nontraditional, new, and extra services to older youths.
Telecommuting-- substituting the computer for the trip to the job ----has been hailed as a solution to all kinds of problems related to office work.
For workers it promises freedom from the office, less time wasted in traffic, and help with child-care conflicts. For management, telecommuting helps keep high performers on board, minimizes tardiness and absenteeism by eliminating commutes, allows periods of solitude for high-concentration tasks, and provides scheduling flexibility. In some areas, such as Southern California and Seattle, Washington, local governments are encouraging companies to start telecommuting programs in order to reduce rush-hour congestion and improve air quality.
But these benefits do not come easily. Making a telecommuting program work requires careful planning and an understanding of the differences between telecommuting realities and popular images.
Many workers are seduced by rosy illusions of life as a telecommuter. A computer programmer from New York City moves to the tranquil Adirondack Mountains and stays in contact with her office via computer. A manager comes in to his office three days a week and works at home the other two. An accountant stays home to care for her sick child; she hooks up her telephone modern connections and does office work between calls to the doctor.
These are powerful images, but they are a limited reflection of reality. Telecommuting workers soon learn that it is almost impossible to concentrate on work and care for a young child at the same time. Before a certain age, young children cannot recognize, much less respect, the necessary boundaries between work and family. Additional child support is necessary if the parent is to get any work done.
Management too must separate the myth from the reality. Although the media has paid a great deal of attention to telecommuting in most cases it is the employee’s situation, not the availability of technology that precipitates a telecommuting arrangement.
That is partly why, despite the widespread press coverage, the number of companies with work-at-home programs or policy guidelines remains small.
30 The origin of Refrigerators
By the mid-nineteenth century, the term“icebox”had entered the American language, but ice was still only beginning to affect the diet of ordinary citizens in the United States. The ice trade grew with the growth of cities. Ice was used in hotels, taverns, and hospitals, and by some forward-looking city dealers in fresh meat, fresh fish, and butter. After the Civil War( 1861-1865),as ice was used to refrigerate freight cars, it also came into household use. Even before 1880,half of the ice sold in New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, and one-third of that sold in Boston and Chicago, went to families for their own use. This had become possible because a new household convenience, the icebox, a precursor of the modern refrigerator, had been invented.
Making an efficient icebox was not as easy as we might now suppose. In the early nineteenth century, the knowledge of the physics of heat, which was essential to a science of refrigeration, was rudimentary. The commonsense notion that the best icebox was one that prevented the ice from melting was of course mistaken, for it was the melting of the ice that performed the cooling. Nevertheless, early efforts to economize ice included wrapping up the ice in blankets, which kept the ice from doing its job. Not until near the end of the nineteenth century did inventors achieve the delicate balance of insulation and circulation needed for an efficient icebox.
But as early as 1803, and ingenious Maryland farmer, Thomas Moore, had been on the right track. He owned a farm about twenty miles outside the city of Washington, for which the village of Georgetown was the market center. When he used an icebox of his own design to transport his butter to market, he found that customers would pass up the rapidly melting stuff in the tubs of his competitors to pay a premium price for his butter, still fresh and hard in neat, one-pound bricks. One advantage of his icebox, Moore explained, was that farmers would no longer have to travel to market at night in order to keep their produce cool.
31 British Columbia
British Columbia is the third largest Canadian provinces, both in area and population. It is nearly 1.5 times as large as Texas, and extends 800 miles(1,280km) north from the United States border. It includes Canada’s entire west coast and the islands just off the coast.
Most of British Columbia is mountainous, with long rugged ranges running north and south. Even the coastal islands are the remains of a mountain range that existed thousands of years ago. During the last Ice Age, this range was scoured by glaciers until most of it was beneath the sea. Its peaks now show as islands scattered along the coast.
The southwestern coastal region has a humid mild marine climate. Sea winds that blow inland from the west are warmed by a current of warm water that flows through the Pacific Ocean. As a result, winter temperatures average above freezing and summers are mild. These warm western winds also carry moisture from the ocean.
Inland from the coast, the winds from the Pacific meet the mountain barriers of the coastal ranges and the Rocky Mountains. As they rise to cross the mountains, the winds are cooled, and their moisture begins to fall as rain. On some of the western slopes almost 200 inches (500cm) of rain fall each year.
More than half of British Columbia is heavily forested. On mountain slopes that receive plentiful rainfall, huge Douglas firs rise in towering columns. These forest giants often grow to be as much as 300 feet(90m) tall, with diameters up to 10 feet(3m). More lumber is produced from these trees than from any other kind of tree in North America. Hemlock, red cedar, and balsam fir are among the other trees found in British Columbia.
Botany, the study of plants, occupies a peculiar position in the history of human knowledge. For many thousands of years it was the one field of awareness about which humans had anything more than the vaguest of insights. It is impossible to know today just what our Stone Age ancestors knew about plants, but form what we can observe of pre-industrial societies that still exist a detailed learning of plants and their properties must be extremely ancient. This is logical. Plants are the basis of the food pyramid for all living things even for other plants. They have always been enormously important to the welfare of people not only for food, but also for clothing, weapons, tools, dyes, medicines, shelter, and a great many other purposes. Tribes living today in the jungles of the Amazon recognize literally hundreds of plants and know many properties of each. To them, botany, as such, has no name and is probably not even recognized as a special branch of“knowledge”at all.
Unfortunately, the more industrialized we become the farther away we move from direct contact with plants, and the less distinct our knowledge of botany grows. Yet everyone comes unconsciously on an amazing amount of botanical knowledge, and few people will fail to recognize a rose, an apple, or an orchid. When our Neolithic ancestors, living in the Middle East about 10,000 years ago, discovered that certain grasses could be harvested and their seeds planted for richer yields the next season the first great step in a new association of plants and humans was taken. Grains were discovered and from them flowed the marvel of agriculture: cultivated crops. From then on, humans would increasingly take their living from the controlled production of a few plants, rather than getting a little here and a little there from many varieties that grew wild- and the accumulated knowledge of tens of thousands of years of experience and intimacy with plants in the wild would begin to fade away.
33 Plankton【浮游生物. / 'plжηktэn; `plжηktэn/】
Scattered through the seas of the world are billions of tons of small plants and animals called plankton. Most of these plants and animals are too small for the human eye to see. They drift about lazily with the currents, providing a basic food for many larger animals.
Plankton has been described as the equivalent of the grasses that grow on the dry land continents, and the comparison is an appropriate one. In potential food value, however, plankton far outweighs that of the land grasses. One scientist has estimated that while grasses of the world produce about 49 billion tons of valuable carbohydrates each year, the sea’s plankton generates more than twice as much.
Despite its enormous food potential, little effect was made until recently to farm plankton as we farm grasses on land. Now marine scientists have at last begun to study this possibility, especially as the sea’s resources loom even more important as a means of feeding an expanding world population.
No one yet has seriously suggested that“plankton-burgers”may soon become popular around the world. As a possible farmed supplementary food source, however, plankton is gaining considerable interest among marine scientists.
One type of plankton that seems to have great harvest possibilities is a tiny shrimp-like creature called krill. Growing to two or three inches long, krill provides the major food for the great blue whale, the largest animal to ever inhabit the Earth. Realizing that this whale may grow to 100 feet and weigh 150 tons at maturity, it is not surprising that each one devours more than one ton of krill daily.
34 Raising Oysters
In the oysters were raised in much the same way as dirt farmers raised tomatoes- by transplanting them. First, farmers selected the oyster bed, cleared the bottom of old shells and other debris, then scattered clean shells about. Next, they”planted”fertilized oyster eggs, which within two or three weeks hatched into larvae. The larvae drifted until they attached themselves to the clean shells on the bottom. There they remained and in time grew into baby oysters called seed or spat. The spat grew larger by drawing in seawater from which they derived microscopic particles of food. Before long, farmers gathered the baby oysters, transplanted them once more into another body of water to fatten them up.
Until recently the supply of wild oysters and those crudely farmed were more than enough to satisfy people’s needs. But today the delectable seafood is no longer available in abundance. The problem has become so serious that some oyster beds have vanished entirely.
Fortunately, as far back as the early 1900’s marine biologists realized that if new measures were not taken, oysters would become extinct or at best a luxury food. So they set up well-equipped hatcheries and went to work. But they did not have the proper equipment or the skill to handle the eggs. They did not know when, what, and how to feed the larvae. And they knew little about the predators that attack and eat baby oysters by the millions. They failed, but they doggedly kept at it. Finally, in the 1940’s a significant breakthrough was made.
The marine biologists discovered that by raising the temperature of the water, they could induce oysters to spawn not only in the summer but also in the fall, winter, and spring. Later they developed a technique for feeding the larvae and rearing them to spat. Going still further, they succeeded in breeding new strains that were resistant to diseases, grew faster and larger, and flourished in water of different salinities and temperatures. In addition, the cultivated oysters tasted better!
35. Oil Refining
An important new industry, oil refining, grew after the Civil war. Crude oil, or petroleum–a dark, thick ooze from the earth–had been known for hundreds of years, but little use had ever been made of it. In the 1850’s Samuel M. Kier, a manufacturer in western Pennsylvania, began collecting the oil from local seepages and refining it into kerosene. Refining, like smelting, is a process of removing impurities from a raw material.
Kerosene was used to light lamps. It was a cheap substitute for whale oil, which was becoming harder to get. Soon there was a large demand for kerosene. People began to search for new supplies of petroleum.
The first oil well was drilled by E.L. Drake, a retired railroad conductor. In 1859 he began drilling in Titusville, Pennsylvania. The whole venture seemed so impractical and foolish that onlookers called it“Drake’s Folly”. But when he had drilled down about 70 feet(21 meters), Drake struck oil. His well began to yield 20 barrels of crude oil a day.
News of Drake’s success brought oil prospectors to the scene. By the early 1860’s these wildcatters were drilling for“black gold”all over western Pennsylvania. The boom rivaled the California gold rush of 1848 in its excitement and Wild West atmosphere. And it brought far more wealth to the prospectors than any gold rush.
Crude oil could be refined into many products. For some years kerosene continued to be the principal one. It was sold in grocery stores and door-to-door. In the 1880’s refiners learned how to make other petroleum products such as waxes and lubricating oils. Petroleum was not then used to make gasoline or heating oil.
36. Plate Tectonics and Sea-floor Spreading
The theory of plate tectonics describes the motions of the lithosphere, the comparatively rigid outer layer of the Earth that includes all the crust and part of the underlying mantle. The lithosphere(n.[地]岩石圈)is divided into a few dozen plates of various sizes and shapes, in general the plates are in motion with respect to one another. A mid-ocean ridge is a boundary between plates where new lithospheric material is injected from below. As the plates diverge from a mid-ocean ridge they slide on a more yielding layer at the base of the lithosphere.
Since the size of the Earth is essentially constant, new lithosphere can be created at the mid-ocean ridges only if an equal amount of lithospheric material is consumed elsewhere. The site of this destruction is another kind of plate boundary: a subduction zone. There one plate dives under the edge of another and is reincorporated into the mantle. Both kinds of plate boundary are associated with fault systems, earthquakes and volcanism, but the kinds of geologic activity observed at the two boundaries are quite different.
The idea of sea-floor spreading actually preceded the theory of plate tectonics. In its original version, in the early 1960’s, it described the creation and destruction of the ocean floor, but it did not specify rigid lithospheric plates. The hypothesis was substantiated soon afterward by the discovery that periodic reversals of the Earth’s magnetic field are recorded in the oceanic crust. As magma rises under the mid-ocean ridge, ferromagnetic minerals in the magma become magnetized in the direction of the magma become magnetized in the direction of the geomagnetic field. When the magma cools and solidifies, the direction and the polarity of the field are preserved in the magnetized volcanic rock. Reversals of the field give rise to a series of magnetic stripes running parallel to the axis of the rift. The oceanic crust thus serves as a magnetic tape recording of the history of the geomagnetic field that can be dated independently; the width of the stripes indicates the rate of the sea-floor spreading.
Icebergs are among nature’s most spectacular creations, and yet most people have never seen one. A vague air of mystery envelops them. They come into being ----- somewhere ------in faraway, frigid waters, amid thunderous noise and splashing turbulence, which in most cases no one hears or sees. They exist only a short time and then slowly waste away just as unnoticed.
Objects of sheerest beauty they have been called. Appearing in an endless variety of shapes, they may be dazzlingly white, or they may be glassy blue, green or purple, tinted faintly of in darker hues. They are graceful, stately, inspiring ----- in calm, sunlight seas.
But they are also called frightening and dangerous, and that they are ---- in the night, in the fog, and in storms. Even in clear weather one is wise to stay a safe distance away from them. Most of their bulk is hidden below the water, so their underwater parts may extend out far beyond the visible top. Also, they may roll over unexpectedly, churning the waters around them.
Icebergs are parts of glaciers that break off, drift into the water, float about awhile, and finally melt. Icebergs afloat today are made of snowflakes that have fallen over long ages of time. They embody snows that drifted down hundreds, or many thousands, or in some cases maybe a million years ago. The snows fell in polar regions and on cold mountains, where they melted only a little or not at all, and so collected to great depths over the years and centuries.
As each year’s snow accumulation lay on the surface, evaporation and melting caused the snowflakes slowly to lose their feathery points and become tiny grains of ice. When new snow fell on top of the old, it too turned to icy grains. So blankets of snow and ice grains mounted layer upon layer and were of such great thickness that the weight of the upper layers compressed the lower ones. With time and pressure from above, the many small ice grains joined and changed to larger crystals, and eventually the deeper crystals merged into a solid mass of ice.
Topaz is a hard, transparent mineral. It is a compound of aluminum, silica, and fluorine. Gem topaz is valuable. Jewelers call this variety of the stone“precious topaz”. The best-known precious topaz gems range in color from rich yellow to light brown or pinkish red. Topaz is one of the hardest gem minerals. In the mineral table of hardness, it has a rating of 8, which means that a knife cannot cut it, and that topaz will scratch quartz.
The golden variety of precious topaz is quite uncommon. Most of the world’s topaz is white or blue. The white and blue crystals of topaz are large, often weighing thousands of carats. For this reason, the value of topaz does not depend so much on its size as it does with diamonds and many other precious stones, where the value increases about four times with each doubling of weight. The value of a topaz is largely determined by its quality. But color is also important: blue topaz, for instance, is often irradiated to deepen and improve its color.
Blue topaz is often sold as aquamarine and a variety of brown quartz is widely sold as topaz. The quartz is much less brilliant and more plentiful than true topaz. Most of it is variety of amethyst: that heat has turned brown.
topaz / 'tэupжz; `topжz/ n (a) [U] transparent yellow mineral黄玉（矿物）.
(b) [C] semi-precious gem cut from this黄玉;黄宝石.
39. The Salinity of Ocean Waters
If the salinity of ocean waters is analyzed, it is found to vary only slightly from place to place. Nevertheless, some of these small changes are important. There are three basic processes that cause a change in oceanic salinity. One of these is the subtraction of water from the ocean by means of evaporation--- conversion of liquid water to water vapor. In this manner the salinity is increased, since the salts stay behind. If this is carried to the extreme, of course, white crystals of salt would be left behind.
The opposite of evaporation is precipitation, such as rain, by which water is added to the ocean. Here the ocean is being diluted so that the salinity is decreased. This may occur in areas of high rainfall or in coastal regions where rivers flow into the ocean. Thus salinity may be increased by the subtraction of water by evaporation, or decreased by the addition of fresh water by precipitation or runoff.
Normally, in tropical regions where the sun is very strong, the ocean salinity is somewhat higher than it is in other parts of the world where there is not as much evaporation. Similarly, in coastal regions where rivers dilute the sea, salinity is somewhat lower than in other oceanic areas.
A third process by which salinity may be altered is associated with the formation and melting of sea ice. When sea water is frozen, the dissolved materials are left behind. In this manner, sea water directly materials are left behind. In this manner, sea water directly beneath freshly formed sea ice has a higher salinity than it did before the ice appeared. Of course, when this ice melts, it will tend to decrease the salinity of the surrounding water.
In the Weddell Sea Antarctica, the densest water in the oceans is formed as a result of this freezing process, which increases the salinity of cold water. This heavy water sinks and is found in the deeper portions of the oceans of the world.
salinity / sэ'linэti; sэ`linэti/
n [U] the high salinity of sea water海水的高含盐量.
à->>saline / 'seilain; US -li:n; `selin/
1.adj [attrib作定语] (fml文) containing salt; salty含盐的;咸的:
* a saline lake盐湖* saline springs盐泉
* saline solution, eg as used for gargling, storing contact lenses, etc盐溶液（如用于漱喉、存放隐形眼镜等）.
2. n [U] (medical医) solution of salt and water盐水.
40. Cohesion-tension Theory
Atmospheric pressure can support a column of water up to 10 meters high. But plants can move water much higher; the sequoia tree can pump water to its very top more than 100 meters above the ground. Until the end of the nineteenth century, the movement of water in trees and other tall plants was a mystery. Some botanists hypothesized that the living cells of plants acted as pumps. But many experiments demonstrated that the stems of plants in which all the cells are killed can still move water to appreciable heights. Other explanations for the movement of water in plants have been based on root pressure, a push on the water from the roots at the bottom of the plant. But root pressure is not nearly great enough to push water to the tops of tall trees. Furthermore, the conifers, which are among the tallest trees, have unusually low root pressures.
If water is not pumped to the top of a tall tree, and if it is not pushed to the top of a tall tree, then we may ask: how does it get there? According to the currently accepted cohesion-tension theory, water is pulled there. The pull on a rising column of water in a plant results from the evaporation of water at the top of the plant. As water is lost from the surface of the leaves, a negative pressure, or tension, is created. The evaporated water is replaced by water moving from inside the plant in unbroken columns that extend from the top of a plant to its roots. The same forces that create surface tension in any sample of water are responsible for the maintenance of these unbroken columns of water. When water is confined in tubes of very small bore, the forces of cohesion (the attraction between water molecules) are so great that the strength of a column of water compares with the strength of a steel wire of the same diameter. This cohesive strength permits columns of water to be pulled to great heights without being broken.
41. American black bears
American black bears appear in a variety of colors despite their name. In the eastern part of their range, most of these brown, red, or even yellow coats. To the north, the black bear is actually gray or white in color. Even in the same litter, both brown and black furred bears may be born.
Black bears are the smallest of all American bears, ranging in length from five to six feet, weighing from three hundred to five hundred pounds Their eyes and ears are small and their eyesight and hearing are not as good as their sense of smell.
Like all bears, the black bear is timid, clumsy, and rarely dangerous , but if attacked, most can climb trees and cover ground at great speeds. When angry or frightened, it is a formidable enemy.
Black bears feed on leaves, herbs. Fruit, berries, insects, fish, and even larger animals. One of the most interesting characteristics of bears, including the black bear, is their winter sleep. Unlike squirrels, woodchucks, and many other woodland animals, bears do not actually hibernate. Although the bear does not during the winter moths, sustaining itself from body fat, its temperature remains almost normal, and it breathes regularly four or five times per minute.
Most black bears live alone, except during mating season. They prefer to live in caves, hollow logs, or dense thickets. A little of one to four cubs is born in January or February after a gestation period of six to nine months, and they remain with their mother until they are fully grown or about one and a half years old. Black bears can live as long as thirty years in the wild , and even longer in game preserves set aside for them.
42. Coal-fired power plants
The invention of the incandescent light bulb by Thomas A. Edison in 1879 created a demand for a cheap, readily available fuel with which to generate large amounts of electric power. Coal seemed to fit the bill, and it fueled the earliest power stations. (which were set up at the end of the nineteenth century by Edison himself). As more power plants were constructed throughout the country, the reliance on coal increased throughout the country, the reliance on coal increased. Since the First World War, coal-fired power plants had a combined in the United States each year. In 1986 such plants had a combined generating capacity of 289,000 megawatts and consumed 83 percent of the nearly 900 million tons of coal mined in the country that year. Given the uncertainty in the future growth of the nearly 900 million tons of coal mined in the country that year. Given the uncertainty in the future growth of nuclear power and in the supply of oil and natural gas, coal-fired power plants could well provide up to 70 percent of the electric power in the United States by the end of the century.
Yet, in spite of the fact that coal has long been a source of electricity and may remain on for many years(coal represents about 80 percent of United States fossil-fuel reserves), it has actually never been the most desirable fossil fuel for power plants. Coal contains less energy per unit of weight than weight than natural gas or oil; it is difficult to transport, and it is associated with a host of environmental issues, among them acid rain. Since the late 1960’s problems of emission control and waste disposal have sharply reduced the appeal of coal-fired power plants. The cost of ameliorating these environment problems along with the rising cost of building a facility as large and complex as a coal-fired power plant, have also made such plants less attractive from a purely economic perspective.
Changes in the technological base of coal-fired power plants could restore their attractiveness, however. Whereas some of these changes are intended mainly to increase the productivity of existing plants, completely new technologies for burning coal cleanly are also being developed.
There were two widely divergent influences on the early development of statistical methods. Statistics had a mother who was dedicated to keeping orderly records of government units (states and statistics come from the same Latin root status) and a gentlemanly gambling father who relied on mathematics to increase his skill at playing the odds in games of chance. The influence of the mother on the offspring, statistics, is represented by counting, measuring, describing, tabulating, ordering, and the taking of censuses—all of which led to modern descriptive statistics. From the influence of the father came modern inferential statistics, which is based squarely on theories of probability.
Describing collections involves tabulating, depicting and describing collections of data. These data may be quantitative such as measures of height, intelligence or grade level------variables that are characterized by an underlying continuum---or the data may represent qualitative variables, such as sex, college major or personality type. Large masses of data must generally undergo a process of summarization or reduction before they are comprehensible. Descriptive statistics is a tool for describing or summarizing or reducing to comprehensible form the properties of an otherwise unwieldy mass of data.
Inferential statistics is a formalized body of methods for solving another class of problems that present great of problems characteristically involves attempts to make predictions using a sample of observations. For example, a school superintendent wishes to determine the proportion of children in a large school system who come to school without breakfast, have been vaccinated for flu, or whatever. Having a little knowledge of statistics, the superintendent would know that it is unnecessary and inefficient to question each child: the proportion for the sample of as few as 100 children. Thus , the purpose of inferential statistics is to predict or estimate characteristics of a population from a knowledge of the characteristics of only a sample of the population.
44. Obtaining Fresh water from icebergs
The concept of obtaining fresh water from icebergs that are towed to populated areas and arid regions of the world was once treated as a joke more appropriate to cartoons than real life. But now it is being considered quite seriously by many nations, especially since scientists have warned that the human race will outgrow its fresh water supply faster than it runs out of food.
Glaciers are a possible source of fresh water that has been overlooked until recently. Three-quarters of the Earth’s fresh water supply is still tied up in glacial ice, a reservoir of untapped fresh water so immense that it could sustain all the rivers of the world for 1,000 years. Floating on the oceans every year are 7,659 trillion metric tons of ice encased in 10000 icebergs that break away from the polar ice caps, more than ninety percent of them from Antarctica.
Huge glaciers that stretch over the shallow continental shelf give birth to icebergs throughout the year. Icebergs are not like sea ice, which is formed when the sea itself freezes, rather, they are formed entirely on land, breaking off when glaciers spread over the sea. As they drift away from the polar region, icebergs sometimes move mysteriously in a direction opposite to the wind, pulled by subsurface currents. Because they melt more slowly than smaller pieces of ice, icebergs have been known to drift as far north as 35 degrees south of the equator in the Atlantic Ocean. To corral them and steer them to parts of the world where they are needed would not be too difficult.
The difficulty arises in other technical matters, such as the prevention of rapid melting in warmer climates and the funneling of fresh water to shore in great volume. But even if the icebergs lost half of their volume in towing, the water they could provide would be far cheaper than that produced by desalinization, or removing salt from water.
45. The source of Energy
A summary of the physical and chemical nature of life must begin, not on the Earth, but in the Sun; in fact, at the Sun’s very center. It is here that is to be found the source of the energy that the Sun constantly pours out into space as light and heat. This energy is librated at the center of the Sun as billions upon billions of nuclei of hydrogen atoms collide with each other and fuse together to form nuclei of helium, and in doing so, release some of the energy that is stored in the nuclei of atoms. The output of light and heat of the Sun requires that some 600 million tons of hydrogen be converted into helium in the Sun every second. This the Sun has been doing for several thousands of millions of year.
The nuclear energy is released at the Sun’s center as high-energy gamma radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation like light and radio waves, only of very much shorter wavelength. This gamma radiation is absorbed by atoms inside the Sun to be reemitted at slightly longer wavelengths. This radiation , in its turn is absorbed and reemitted. As the energy filters through the layers of the solar interior, it passes through the X-ray part of the spectrum eventually becoming light. At this stage, it has reached what we call the solar surface, and can escape into space without being absorbed further by solar atoms. A very small fraction of the Sun’s light and heat is emitted in such directions that after passing unhindered through interplanetary space, it hits the Earth.
Human vision like that of other primates has evolved in an arboreal environment. In the dense complex world of a tropical forest, it is more important to see well that to develop an acute sense of smell. In the course of evolution members of the primate line have acquired large eyes while the snout has shrunk to give the eye an unimpeded view. Of mammals only humans and some primates enjoy color vision. The red flag is black to the bull. Horses live in a monochrome world .light visible to human eyes however occupies only a very narrow band in the whole electromagnetic spectrum. Ultraviolet rays are invisible to humans though ants and honeybees are sensitive to them. Humans though ants and honeybees are sensitive to them. Humans have no direct perception of infrared rays unlike the rattlesnake which has receptors tuned into wavelengths longer than 0.7 micron. The world would look eerily different if human eyes were sensitive to infrared radiation. Then instead of the darkness of night, we would be able to move easily in a strange shadowless world where objects glowed with varying degrees of intensity. But human eyes excel in other ways. They are in fact remarkably discerning in color gradation. The color sensitivity of normal human vision is rarely surpassed even by sophisticated technical devices.
47. Folk Cultures
A folk culture is a small isolated, cohesive, conservative, nearly self-sufficient group that is homogeneous in custom and race with a strong family or clan structure and highly developed rituals. Order is maintained through sanctions based in the religion or family and interpersonal. Relationships are strong. Tradition is paramount, and change comes infrequently and slowly. There is relatively little division of labor into specialized duties. Rather, each person is expected to perform a great variety of tasks, though duties may differ between the sexes. Most goods are handmade and subsistence economy prevails. Individualism is weakly developed in folk cultures as are social classes. Unaltered folk cultures no longer exist in industrialized countries such as the United States and Canada. Perhaps the nearest modern equivalent in Anglo America is the Amish, a German American farming sect that largely renounces the products and labor saving devices of the industrial age. In Amish areas, horse drawn buggies still serve as a local transportation device and the faithful are not permitted to own automobiles. The Amish’s central religious concept of Demut“humility”, clearly reflects the weakness of individualism and social class so typical of folk cultures and there is a corresponding strength of Amish group identity. Rarely do the Amish marry outside their sect. The religion, a variety of the Mennonite faith, provides the principal mechanism for maintaining order.
By contrast a popular culture is a large heterogeneous group often highly individualistic and a pronounced many specialized professions. Secular institutions of control such as the police and army take the place of religion and family in maintaining order, and a money-based economy prevails. Because of these contrasts,“popular”may be viewed as clearly different from“folk”. The popular is replacing the folk in industrialized countries and in many developing nations. Folk-made objects give way to their popular equivalent, usually because the popular item is more quickly or cheaply produced, is easier or time saving to use or leads more prestige to the owner.
Bacteria are extremely small living things. While we measure our own sizes in inches or centimeters, bacterial size is measured in microns. One micron is a thousandth of a millimeter: a pinhead is about a millimeter across. Rod-shaped bacteria are usually from two to four microns long, while rounded ones are generally one micron in diameter. Thus if you enlarged a rounded bacterium a thousand times, it would be just about the size of a pinhead. An adult human magnified by the same amount would be over a mile(1.6 kilometer) tall.
Even with an ordinary microscope, you must look closely to see bacteria. Using a magnification of 100 times, one finds that bacteria are barely visible as tiny rods or dots. One cannot make out anything of their structure. Using special stains, one can see that some bacteria have attached to them wavy-looking“hairs”called flagella. Others have only one flagellum. The flagella rotate, pushing the bacteria through the water. Many bacteria lack flagella and cannot move about by their own power, while others can glide along over surfaces by some little-understood mechanism.
From the bacteria point of view, the world is a very different place from what it is to humans. To a bacterium water is as thick as molasses is to us. Bacteria are so small that they are influenced by the movements of the chemical molecules around them. Bacteria under the microscope, even those with no flagella, often bounce about in the water. This is because they collide with the watery molecules and are pushed this way and that. Molecules move so rapidly that within a tenth of a second the molecules around a bacteria have all been replaced by new ones; even bacteria without flagella are thus constantly exposed to a changing environment.
Sleet is part of a person’s daily activity cycle. There are several different stages of sleep, and they too occur in cycles. If you are an average sleeper, your sleep cycle is as follows. When you fist drift off into slumber, your eyes will roll about a bit, you temperature will drop slightly, your muscles will relax, and your breathing well slow and become quite regular. Your brain waves slow and become quite regular. Your brain waves slow down a bit too, with the alpha rhythm of rather fast waves 1 sleep. For the next half hour or so, as you relax more and more, you will drift down through stage 2 and stage 3 sleep. The lower your stage of sleep. slower your brain waves will be. Then about 40to 69 minutes after you lose consciousness you will have reached the deepest sleep of all. Your brain will show the large slow waves that are known as the delta rhythm. This is stage 4 sleep.
You do not remain at this deep fourth stage all night long, but instead about 80 minutes after you fall into slumber, your brain activity level will increase again slightly. The delta rhythm will disappear, to be replaced by the activity pattern of brain waves. Your eyes will begin to dart around under your closed eyelids as if you were looking at something occurring in front of you. This period of rapid eye movement lasts for some 8 to 15 minutes and is called REM sleep. It is during REM sleep period, your body will soon relax again, your breathing will slip gently back from stage 1 to stage 4 sleep----only to rise once again to the surface of near consciousness some 80 minutes later.
50. Cells and Temperature
Cells cannot remain alive outside certain limits of temperature and much narrower limits mark the boundaries of effective functioning. Enzyme systems of mammals and birds are most efficient only within a narrow range around 37C;a departure of a few degrees from this value seriously impairs their functioning. Even though cells can survive wider fluctuations the integrated actions of bodily systems are impaired. Other animals have a wider tolerance for changes of bodily temperature.
For centuries it has been recognized that mammals and birds differ from other animals in the way they regulate body temperature. Ways of characterizing the difference have become more accurate and meaningful over time, but popular terminology still reflects the old division into“warm-blooded”and“cold-blooded”species; warm-blooded included mammals and birds whereas all other creatures were considered cold-blooded. As more species were studied, it became evident that this classification was inadequate. A fence lizard or a desert iguana—each cold-blooded----usually has a body temperature only a degree or two below that of humans and so is not cold. Therefore the next distinction was made between animals that maintain a constant body temperature, called home0therms, and those whose body temperature varies with their environments, called poikilotherms. But this classification also proved inadequate, because among mammals there are many that vary their body temperatures during hibernation. Furthermore, many invertebrates that live in the depths of the ocean never experience change in the depths of the ocean never experience change in the chill of the deep water, and their body temperatures remain constant.